Sobral, Brazil
Sobral, Brazil

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Rodriguez N.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Lopes F.C.F.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Lobo R.N.B.,Embrapa Caprinos
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2010

The present study aimed to determine de nutritional value of mixed elephant grass silages and increasing levels of dehydrated acerola industry by-product (PAC). Five PAC levels (0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14%) were evaluated in a digestibility trial with 20 male non-castrated sheep in a randomized experimental design of five treatments (PAC levels) and four replications per treatment (sheep). Intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL), hemicelulose (HCEL) and energy digestible as well as nitrogen balance were determined. The addition of PAC, didn't influence the consumption of DM, NDF, ADF, DDM and DNDF. However, the addition of 1% PAC in the silage of elephant grass resulted in increase of 1.91 g and 0.04 g in the daily consumptions of CP and DCP, respectively. With the addition of PAC, there were no alterations in the digestibility of DM (43%), CP (36.4%), NDF (44.8%) and in nitrogen balance (0.22 g) of the silages. However, nitrogen balance reached positive values when 10.5 and 14% of PAC were added to the silage. The by-product of dehydrated acerola may be added in levels of up to 14% of the natural matter in the silage of elephant grass, because it doesn't affect the intake and digestibility of the nutrients by sheep.


Bringel L.M.L.,Federal University of Tocantins | Neiva J.N.M.,Federal University of Tocantins | de Araujo V.L.,Federal University of Tocantins | Bomfim M.A.D.,Embrapa Caprinos | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2011

This research was conducted to evaluate the voluntary intake, the apparent digestibility and the nitrogen balance in sheep fed with diets containing palm kernel cake. The addition of palm kernel cake was assessed at the 0; 20; 40; 60 and 80% levels replacing the elephant grass silages by utilizing 20 castrated male sheep in a completely randomized design. In all the forms they were expressed, intake and digestibility of nutrients showed quadract effect at the levels of palm kernel pie utilized in the diet. The inclusion of palm kernel pie in the diets had quadract effect also on the nitrogen balance, due to low consumption of crude protein at higher levels. Palm kernel pie presents the characteristics of bulky feed, and its biggest limitation is the low feeding intake, hence, its use at sheep's feeding must be restricted to up to 37.34% of the total diet. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Rego M.M.T.,Federal University of Ceará | Neiva J.N.M.,Federal University of Tocantins | do Rego A.C.,Federal University of Lavras | Candido M.J.D.,Federal University of Ceará | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of elephant grass silages with increasing levels of dried mango by-product (DMB). Five addition levels were studied (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16%) using 20 rams, in a randomized complete design with five treatments (addition levels) and four replications. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ether extract (EE), total carbohydrates (TC), nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC) intake and digestibility were evaluated, as well as the total digestible nutrients (TDN) and the silage nitrogen balance (NB). Mango by-product addition did not influence the DM, CP and TC intakes, the TDN level or the OM, CT and NFC digestibilities. On the other hand, DMB addition reduced the NDF and the ADF intakes, as well as the DM, CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities, and the NB of the silages. There was also a increasing linear effect of DMB addition on the EE and NFC intakes, and on EE digestibility. The elephant grass silage with DMB by-product may not be used as a single feed to ruminants because it reduces the NDF and the ADF intakes and the DM, CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities, as well as the nitrogen balance. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Maciel R.P.,Federal University of Tocantins | Neiva J.N.M.,Federal University of Tocantins | de Araujo V.L.,Federal University of Tocantins | Cunha O.F.R.,Federal University of Tocantins | And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet on intake, digestibility and performance of dairy heifers. Sixteen dairy Holstein-Zebu crossbred heifers with average age of 13 months and average weight of 183.4±32.5 kg were distributed to four treatments in a completely randomized design with four levels of palm kernel cake (0, 11.9, 22.9 and 34.2% from total dry matter), each one with four replicates. The intake of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), ether extract (EE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN), and the apparent digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, NFC and EE were evaluated. There was linear reduction in DM, CP, NDF, NFC, and TDN intake. The apparent digestibility of DM and NDF reduced with the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet, while the apparent digestibility of CP and NFC showed quadratic effect. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diets resulted in linear increase in the apparent digestibility of ether extract. Weight gain decreased linearly with the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet, with values of 1.06, 0.99, 0.89 and 0.54 kg/day for diets containing 0, 11.9, 22, 9 or 34.2% palm kernel cake, respectively. Feed conversion was not affected by the inclusion of levels of palm kernel cake. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet reduces nutrient intake and performance of dairy heifers during growth, but when used in levels up to 24.6% of the total diet, it provides weight gain compatible with growth programs aiming calving at 24 months of age. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


do Egypto Queiroga R.C.R.,Federal University of Paraiba | Maia M.O.,University of Sao Paulo | de Medeiros A.N.,Federal University of Paraiba | Costa R.G.,Federal University of Paraiba | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The effect was assessed of including licuri and castor oils in the diet on the production and chemical composition of milk from goats and the economic viability of the diets. Crossbred Moxotó goats in a 5 × 5 Latin square design were used with two replications consisting of five diets: a control treatment without supplementary oil (control), and the others with 3% or 5% licuri or castor oil. Milk production decreased with the inclusion of 5% licuri oil, but it did not influence the production of milk corrected to 4% fat. The addition of 3% castor oil reduced the fat content and total solids production compared to licuri oil, but it increased the lactose content. There was no significant difference in the protein content among treatments. The simple financial analyses showed that the control diet was more profitable, but supplementation with 3% licuri oil when compared to castor oil supplementation can be an alternative when the milk is for processing because of the higher fat content. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Santos S.F.,Zootecnia UFC | Bomfim M.A.D.,Embrapa Caprinos | Candido M.J.D.,Zootecnia UFC | Silva M.M.C.,Embrapa Caprinos | And 4 more authors.
Archivos de Zootecnia | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of substitution levels of the Tifton 85 hay by castor bean hulls in diets for dairy goats on the yield, chemical composition and fatty acids profile of milk. Eight Anglo-Nubian female goats, breed, with average weight of 45 kg were used. The animals were allocated in stalls and distributed in a double 4x4 latin square experimental design. The treatments consisted of three levels of substitution of the Tifton 85 hay by castor bean hulls as roughage food (0, 33, 67 and 100%) maintaining the roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50. Each experimental period had a duration of 21 days, being 14 days of adaptation and seven days of data collection. There was a decrease in production when the castor hulls were included in diet, and two diets containing the highest levels of inclusion of the castor bean hulls did not differ between themselves. For milk chemical composition, there was no effect when Tifton 85 hay was substituted by castor bean hulls on the crude protein, minerals, lactose and total dry extract. The fat milk level was increased when the castor bean hulls substituted the Tifton 85 hay in the levels 67 and 100%, but it caused no change in milk density, whose average density was 1031. The substitution of Tifton 85 hay by castor bean hulls promoted effect on the fatty acids concentration. Was found significant effect, for fatty acid concentration, on the levels of miristic acid (C 14: 0), linoelaidic acid (C 18: 2n6t), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA 9t11) and on the profile of saturated (AGSAT), polyunsaturated (AGPOL) and essential fatty acids (AGESS) (p<0.05). There was no effect of treatments on unsaturated, short chain, long chain and monounsaturated fatty acids (p>0.05). The substitution of Tifton 85 hay by castor bean hulls reduced the atherogenicity index (AI) of the diet. The castor bean hulls can replace the Tifton 85 hay in up to 33% in diet of dairy goats. This substitution can be viable when the goal is to have goat milk with better nutritional characteristics.


Ferrarezi A.C.,São Paulo State University | Dos Santos K.O.,Embrapa Caprinos | Monteiro M.,São Paulo State University
Revista de Nutricao | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to critically assess the Brazilian regulations on fruit juices, with emphasis on ready-to-drink fruit juice. According to the Brazilian regulations, bottled fruit juices must follow specific regulations. They should be in accordance with the definition and designation that identify them, with the quality parameters established, and especially, follow the Brazilian food labeling regulations. The Brazilian regulations on bottled fruit juices have some gaps that promote their misunderstanding and marketing of substandard juices. Frequent changes, divergent labeling regulations and inappropriate use of expressions on the label can also lead to misinterpretation. Food regulations need to be clear and updated frequently if they are to be known and followed. Additionally, their wide dissemination should contribute to informed choices when buying.


Neto T.Q.,Embrapa Amazonia Oriental | Lana A.M.Q.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Reis G.L.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Holanda Junior E.V.,Embrapa Caprinos | Borges I.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Revista Caatinga | Year: 2011

In the Brazilian northeastern, goat and sheep are a complementary income for family farmers, mainly through the production of leather skin and/or meat. The aim of this work was to characterize sheep and goat's production systems practiced by local farmers in Jussara and Valente - Bahia (Brazil) through the analyses of nutrition, sanitary and reproductive practices. Data on 46 producers were collected through a structuralized script and later analyzed through descriptive statistical techniques. There was greater frequencies and medium from sheep than goat. The sheep breed Saint Ines and goat breed Anglo-Nubiano predominate in the crossbreeding with local breeds. The nutritional management was based on caatinga vegetation with supplements. The sanitary management was deficient, mainly in relation to worms. The reproductive management, although the general situation of traditional systems, showed better indices. Thus, the systems studied are family- based, diversified among stages of production. Although presentations for own consumption or subsistence systems, particularly the sheep production have a tendency of expansion and specialization.


Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI), Brazilian Somali (So), Dorper (Do) and Poll Dorset (Po) breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC) coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999). The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês × Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Valente B.S.M.,Federal University of Ceará | Candido M.J.D.,Federal University of Ceará | Junior J.A.A.C.,Federal University of Ceará | Pereira E.S.,Federal University of Ceará | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, digestibility and in situ degradation of dry matter of the diet consumed by sheep grazing on Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania under three defoliation frequencies, determined by the interception of the photosynthetically active radiation in the canopy (PAR) of 85, 95 and 97% on the first and fourth days of the grazing period. A randomized complete design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three defoliation frequencies and two days grazing), with four replications (poles). To determine the chemical composition, digestibility and an in situ dry matter degradation trial, a grazing simulation was carried out on the 1st and 4th days. Reduced defoliation frequency decreased the chemical composition, digestibility and in situ degradation of the diet. Thus defoliation frequency of tanzania grass is recommended of less or equal to 95% photosynthetically active radiation to maintain pasture quality. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

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