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Macapá, Brazil

Powell T.L.,Harvard University | Galbraith D.R.,University of Leeds | Galbraith D.R.,University of Oxford | Christoffersen B.O.,University of Arizona | And 15 more authors.
New Phytologist

Summary: Considerable uncertainty surrounds the fate of Amazon rainforests in response to climate change. Here, carbon (C) flux predictions of five terrestrial biosphere models (Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5), Ecosystem Demography model version 2.1 (ED2), Integrated BIosphere Simulator version 2.6.4 (IBIS), Joint UK Land Environment Simulator version 2.1 (JULES) and Simple Biosphere model version 3 (SiB3)) and a hydrodynamic terrestrial ecosystem model (the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere (SPA) model) were evaluated against measurements from two large-scale Amazon drought experiments. Model predictions agreed with the observed C fluxes in the control plots of both experiments, but poorly replicated the responses to the drought treatments. Most notably, with the exception of ED2, the models predicted negligible reductions in aboveground biomass in response to the drought treatments, which was in contrast to an observed c. 20% reduction at both sites. For ED2, the timing of the decline in aboveground biomass was accurate, but the magnitude was too high for one site and too low for the other. Three key findings indicate critical areas for future research and model development. First, the models predicted declines in autotrophic respiration under prolonged drought in contrast to measured increases at one of the sites. Secondly, models lacking a phenological response to drought introduced bias in the sensitivity of canopy productivity and respiration to drought. Thirdly, the phenomenological water-stress functions used by the terrestrial biosphere models to represent the effects of soil moisture on stomatal conductance yielded unrealistic diurnal and seasonal responses to drought. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust. Source

Zucchi R.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Marinho C.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Silva R.A.,Embrapa Amapa
Neotropical Entomology

Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) was recorded in the states of Amapá and Roraima, Brazil. This is also the first time that this parasitoid is associated with Anastrepha atrigona Hendel from Geissospermum argenteum. © 2011 Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil. Source

The extract of amapazeiro (Brosimum parinarioides Ducke), known as milk-of-amapá, is used by Amazonian populations as food and medicinal sources. The rapid change in color of the latex after extraction indicates the presence of enzymes such as polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), darkening the fresh product and disqualifying it for trading. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the activity of enzymes PPO and POD from three milk-of-amapá samples collected in amapazeiros in Moju (PA) cooled to 8°C and eleven samples of milk-of-amapá after the pasteurization process in different binomials time/temperature and then cooled to 8°C in order to optimize the storage of the fresh product. After cooling to 8°C, samples from the fresh milk-of-amapá showed significant difference between the values of PER enzyme activity POD, and later there was an increase of activity during the periods analyzed. As it was also observed PPO enzyme activity in the same samples, it appears that this type of conservation was not effective for the POD and PPO enzymes from milk-of-amapá. The samples of pasteurized milk-of-Amapá, and then cooled, showed enzyme activities of PPO and POD significantly different from respective control sample (without pasteurization), what leads to a conclusion that pasteurization in binomials studied, together with the cooling, was effective in reducing the activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzymes, reaching to the inactivation of them, being a potencial process for conservation of this product. Source

Lacerda A.C.F.,State University of Maringa | Takemoto R.M.,State University of Maringa | Tavares-Dias M.,Embrapa Amapa | Poulin R.,University of Otago | Pavanelli G.C.,State University of Maringa
Journal of Parasitology

Biological invasions are considered a major threat to biodiversity around the world, but the role of parasites in this process is still little investigated. Here, we compared parasite infections of a host species in the areas where it originated and where it was introduced, and in native and introduced species in the same environment, using the endoparasites of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) in 3 Brazilian basins. Samples were taken in 2 rivers where the species is native, i.e., Solimes River (SO) and Tocantins River (TO), and where the species was introduced, the upper Paran River (PR). In addition, abundances of diplostomids and larval nematodes were compared between P. squamosissimus and 2 native competitors in the PR, Hoplias malabaricus and Raphiodon vulpinus. In total, 13 species of endoparasites were recorded, but only Austrodiplostomum sp. and cestode cysts were present in all localities. Although infracommunity richness was similar, their species composition was slightly different among localities. General linear models using the relative condition factor of fish as response variables, and abundance of the most prevalent parasites as possible predictors showed that the condition of fish is negatively correlated with parasite abundance only in the native range (TO). Abundance of diplostomid eye flukes was higher in the PR, and in the native species H. malabaricus when compared to the invader, which might present an advantage for P. squamosissimus if they compete for prey. However, although P. squamosissimus may have lost some of its native parasites during its introduction to the PR, it is now possibly acting as a host for native generalist parasites. © 2012 American Society of Parasitologists. Source

Macedo Silva R.,University do Estado do Amapa | Tavares-Dias M.,Embrapa Amapa | Reis Dias M.W.,Embrapa Amapa | Reis Dias M.K.,Federal University of Amapa | das Gracas Barbosa Marinho R.,Federal University of Amapa
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira

The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus) from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora); Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida); Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea); Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala); Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda); Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae); and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda). A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish. Source

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