Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste

Dourados, Brazil

Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste

Dourados, Brazil
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Shimbori E.M.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | Penteado-Dias A.M.,Federal University of São Carlos
ZooKeys | Year: 2011

Te Aleiodes melanopterus (Erichson, 1848) species-group includes 21 species, of which seven are known from the Neotropical region: A. favistigma Shaw, 1993, A. lucidus (Sze ́pligeti, 1906), A. melanopterus, A. mexicanus Cresson, 1869, A. politiceps (Gahan, 1917), and the new species A. shaworum sp. n. and A. vassununga sp. n. Distribution ranges of A. melanopterus, A. favistigma and A. lucidus are extended and the female of A. lucidus is described. A key to the Neotropical species of this species-group is presented. © E.M. Shimbori, A.M. Penteado-Dias.

da Silva R.F.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | de Fatima Guimaraes M.,State University Londrina | de Aquino A.M.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Mercante F.M.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the integrated crop-livestock system on the morphological, physical and biological properties of soil. The experiment was carried out in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in a typic Hapludox soil. The following systems were sampled: grain crop under conventional soil tillage system, integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage, continuous Urochloa decumbens (Syn. Brachiaria decumbens) pasture and natural system. In each system, a trench was opened in order to detect morphological changes caused by different management, using the cultural profile method. Assessments of soil macroinvertebrates were done according to the method Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility. Undisturbed soil samples were also used to assess the physical attributes of soil (soil density, total porosity, macro and microporosity). Among the cultivated systems, better soil structure was observed in the integrated crop-livestock system, in the layers 0.0.1 and m. The systems under crop-livestock and pasture continuously cultivated favored a more biologically active soil environment, among the other agricultural systems. The visualization of soil attributes showed that crop-livestock integration is a promising strategy to develop sustainable production systems and that the period of two years of management is considered suitable for crop-pasture rotation.

Concenco G.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | Concenco S.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Planta Daninha | Year: 2016

Conyza spp. are widely responsible for yield losses in agriculture due to its worldwide occurrence, resistance to herbicides and other traits which turn these species into first grade weeds. Since the 1980’s, these species started to be cited on books both related to the ecology and the weed science, being usually classified as ruderals. Occurrence of Conyza in crops shows that these species are highly adaptable due to its recent evolutionary origin and occur in environments prone concomitantly to a moderate set of competition, disturbance and stress. There are also limitations in Grime’s theory which may lead us to mistakes about the behavior of Conyza. Thus, simple and isolated recommendations certainly will not solve the problem of Conyza. Neither soil tillage nor tolerant crops to 2,4-D will free the agriculture from this weed, being necessary an integrated approach to solve this problem which demands qualified human resources in weed science and planning. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira da Ciencia das Plantas Daninha. All rights reserved.

Machado L.A.Z.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | de Assis P.G.G.,Fundacao Vegetal
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2010

The objective of this work was to evaluate forage and straw production, of annual and perennial forage implanted in succession to soybean, and their effects on crop grain yield in the following season. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement (free growth and successive cuts). Eight forages were evaluated in two municipalities of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Straw and forage production was evaluated in 2005 and 2006, in the following species: Urochloa ruziziensis, U. decumbens; U. brizantha cv. Marandu and Xaraés; Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia and Mombaça, P. maximum x P. infestans cv. Massai, Pennisetum americanum cv. BRS 1501, and Sorghum bicolor cv. Santa Elisa. Forages were planted mechanically, after the soybean crop harvest on 4/1/2005 and 3/24/2006, in São Gabriel do Oeste, and 3/20/2005 and 3/13/2006, in Dourados. Sorghum, U. brizantha cv. Xaraés and P. maximum cv. Tanzânia characteristics, such as high productivity, high forage quality and easiness in control, were favorable for production of both forage and straw. Urochloa ruziziensis and U. decumbens showed better performance for straw production. Forage cultivation in soybean succession does not affect crop yield.

da Silva J.A.N.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | de Souza C.M.A.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | da Silva C.J.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | Bottega S.P.,Federal University of Grande Dourados
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to evaluate growth and dry matter production of forages species intercropped with physic nut (Jatropha curcas). The experiment was carried out in Dourados, MS, Brazil, in a randomized complete blocks design, in a factorial arrangement 7x2, split-plotted in time. The evaluated species were: Stylosanthes spp.; Urochloa ruziziensis; U. ruziziensis + Stylosanthes spp.; U. humidicola; Megathyrsus maximus 'Massai'; Cajanus cajan; and Crotalaria spectabilis. Species performance was evaluated in single and in physic nut-intercropped systems. Physic nut was planted in November/2006, in a 3x2-m spacing, and forages were sown in between rows in March/2009. The evaluations were done in seven periods, from April/2009 to June/2010. The forage species show good productive ability both as forage and soil coverage, when intercropped with physic nut. 'Massai' grass (M. maximus) has a better productive capacity and is more tolerant to shading than the other species, when intercropped with physic nut.

Scorza Jr. R.P.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | Rigitano R.L.O.,Federal University of Lavras
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2012

Information about environmental behaviour of pesticides is needed to assess their risks. This work had the aim to determine sorption and degradation of the insecticide thiamethoxam in two depths (0-30 and 50-70 cm) of two agricultural soils in the State Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, as well as to evaluate its leaching and dissipation in the field. Thiamethoxam concentration profiles until 100 cm depth were obtained during the period of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The low values of Freundlich coefficient for equilibrium of thiamethoxam for both soils and depths show its low affinity with the soil solid phase. Thiamethoxam degradation in both soils and depths was quite slow, with half-lives between 96 and 618days. In the field, afast thiamethoxam dissipation was observed just after application. Thiamethoxam leaching was restricted to 50 cm depth, indicating low potential to contaminate groundwater in the studied soils.

Machado L.A.Z.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of palisade grass genotypes [Urochloa brizantha (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha)] in succession to soybean, for use on crop-livestock integration systems. The Marandu, MG 4, Xaraés, Piatã, Arapoty e B 6 genotypes were evaluated as a second crop, during the dry season, and soybean, in the summer crop, in a succession scheme, from 2007 to 2010. In each year, forages were sown in March and evaluated at successive cuts until late September, then desiccated in October to allow for no-tillage soybean seeding in november. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was used. Xaraés and B 6 genotypes were among those with higher forage production. The Xaraés cultivar showed lower contents of crude protein, in vitro digestibility of organic matter, calcium, and phosphorus, which, however, can be considered good for this genus, since it was grown in fertile soil. There is variation among U. brizantha genotypes as to their performance in the second crop. The Xaraés and B 6 genotypes show better performance in succession to soybean, in integrated production systems. The MG 4 and B 6 genotypes are easily desiccated with glyphosate herbicide. Soybean yield is not significantly affected by the cultivation in succession to the U. brizantha genotypes.

The feasibility of soybean-maize succession under the no-till system in the Brazilian cerrado depends on adequate amounts of straw on the soil surface, which can be obtained by intercropping maize with perennial forages. This study aimed to evaluate mass yield and burndown easiness for nine perennial forage species. The species were grown intercropped with maize from March to July 2009. In October, plants were cut at 0.20 m above ground and 20 days after cut, glyphosate was applied at the following doses: 0.72, 1.44, 2.06, and 2.88 kg a.e. ha-1). The effect of the doses was evaluated 10 and 20 days after application, by weighing and oven-drying the straw at 60 °C. Control was considered excellent when moisture of the desiccated plants was less than or equal to 30% and the forages were grouped according to burn-down easiness: 1) Urochloa (Syn Brachiaria) ruziziensis, Megatyrsus (syn Panicum) maximum cv. Massai, and M. maximum cv. Aruana as the most easily controlled; 2) U. decumbens cv. Basilisk, U. brizantha cv. Xaraés, and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, as intermediary; and 3) M. maximum cv. Tanzânia, M. maximum cv. Mombaça, and B. brizantha cv. Piatã, as the hardest-to-kill. Considering biomass production, the shorter interval between herbicide application and plant death, and the glyphosate dose, U. ruziziensis (0.45 and 1.29 kg a.e. ha-1) and M. maximum cv. Aruana (1.41 and 1.66 kg a.e. ha-1) presented the most burn-down easiness, aiming at soybean plant succession.

Garcia R.A.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | Rosolem C.A.,São Paulo State University
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2010

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fall-winter and spring crops, cultivated under no-tillage system, on the aggregates and organic matter of a Rhodic Ferralsol. The experiment was performed in the 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Congo signal grass (Urochloa ruziziensis), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum mixed with brachiaria were cropped in the fall-winter to consist the main plots. In the spring, millet (Pennisetum glaucum), 'Cober Crop' (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense) and Indian hemp (Crotalaria juncea) were cultivated as subplots as well as a fallow treatment. Soybean was cropped in the summer, totaling 12 treatments. Cover crop dry matter and root growth were evaluated in 2006 and 2008. Soil samples were taken from 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths, after spring cover crops managing, in the first and third years. The mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, aggregate stability index, aggregates larger than 2 mm, organic matter and total organic carbon levels were evaluated in the samples of the third year. Millet and 'Cober Crop' showed higher dry matter production and root growth. The soil aggregation was improved by cover crop rotations before the summer growing season. The cultivation of 'Cober Crop' and millet influenced the macroaggregate formation in the superficial layers.

The objective of this work was to evaluate the forage production of perennial species and their mixtures with annual species, during the dry season, and the grain yield of soybean grown in succession. Experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008, in Dourados and São Gabriel do Oeste, MS, Brazil. In 2007, the evaluated treatments were Urochloa brizantha ('Xaraés') and Megathyrsus maximus ('Tanzania'), single or in mixtures with Eleusine coracana (finger millet), Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) and Sorghum bicolor (forage sorghum). In 2008, U. decumbens and the cultivars Tanzania and Xaraés, single or in mixtures with pearl millet and forage sorghum, were evaluated. The evaluations were done in forages under successive cuts, during the dry season, and in soybean grown in succession, in the summer. Mixtures of annual and perennial species do not increase forage production, but improve its distribution throughout the dry season. The annual forages have higher participation in the forage production of mixtures at the beginning of the dry season, and the perennials at the end of that season. Leaf/stem ratio of individual perennial forages is greater than that of the mixtures. The evaluated treatments have no effect on soybean grown in succession. Glycine max, Panicum, Brachiaria, production seasonality, cover crops, second crop.

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