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Rio Branco, Brazil

This study had the objective to investigate the effects of gamma ray radiation on survival and proliferation of shoots from stem nodal segments and on the germination seeds passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). Stem segments explants (2cm) containing one axillary bud obtained from in vitropropagated seedlings of passion fruit were treated with γ-rays at dosages ranging from 10 to 60Gy and subsequently transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.0mg L-1 BAP. Seeds of passion fruit were irradiated with gamma rays at dosages ranging from 75 to 200Gy. Germination and survival of seedlings were measured after 30 and 60 days of transfer to MS medium, respectively. After 30 days of irradiation of stem segments it was observed 50% reduction in survival of explants and the number of shoots formed in vitro at 21.31 and 12.20Gy, respectively. The LD50 for seed germination is 160Gy, while for seedling survival is 125Gy. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved. Source

de Souza Gomes Guarino E.,Embrapa Acre | Scariot A.,Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia
Ecological Research | Year: 2014

Natural tree regeneration in abandoned pastures can be hampered by various biotic and abiotic filters, including seed removal and predation. We tested the effects of maintenance and removal of grass and seed deposition (buried and unburied) on seed germination of 12 tree species in dry forest pastures. We obtained evidence supporting the hypothesis that seeds attain higher germination under a grass canopy than on bare ground. For most species, grass cover provides safety from seed predators and facilitates germination by providing a suitable microclimate with soil humidity similar to the forest. The hypothesis that buried seeds attain higher germination was not supported by our data. Predation and removal of unburied seeds ranged from 0 to 77 % and, alone or together, were the major causes of non-germination. Direct seeding is a promising technique for revegetation of recently abandoned pastures in areas originally covered by tropical dry forests. The high germination rate of seeds deposited on the ground and under grass reduces costs during initial restoration stages, potentially facilitating the spread and use of this technique. © 2014 The Ecological Society of Japan. Source

Santos R.S.,Embrapa Acre | Martinelli P.R.P.,Instituto Taquaritinguense Of Ensino Superior Ites
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on nematodes associated with five cultivated fruit trees growing in the Agroforestry System (AFS) of the municipality of Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil. Rhizosphere samples were collected from three points at the base of murici (Byrsonima sp.), soursop (Annona muricata), cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), passion fruit (Passiflora sp.) and peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) trees. Four species of phytonematodes were identified, namely Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax and Rotylenchulus reniformis. The most prevalent and abundant species was R. reniformis, which was found in the rhizospheres of passion fruit, cupuaçu, soursop, and peach palm. The first record in Brazil of the nematode P. brachyurus, found in the roots of murici is reported here, and all of the nematode species identified here are the first records for fruit trees in the state of Amapá. © 2016, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved. Source

The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of the maize and xaraés palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha 'Xaraés') crops in intercropping, grown in no-tillage and conventional tillage, in an agrosilvopastoral system, with the application of different nitrogen topdressing rates. The experiment was conducted in a maize crop area with the forest species "mulateiro" (Calycophyllum spruceanum). The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, in a split-plot arrangement with two systems of soil management (no-tillage and conventional tillage with heavy disk) allocated to the plots and five rates of nitrogen topdressing (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1 N) to the subplots, totaling ten treatments. Maize grain yield responded linearly to N application in area of conventional tillage. In no-tillage area, the dose of 165 kg ha-1 N topdressing was necessary to obtain satisfactory yields. Nitrogen topdressing in maize crop until the dose of 200 kg ha-1 N does not influence xaraés palisade grass yield when intercropped between the lines, after maize harvest. Source

de Souza Gomes Guarino E.,Embrapa Acre | Scariot A.O.,Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

We evaluated the survival and growth of Amburana cearensis, Cedrela fissilis, and Sterculia striata seedlings in three seasonally tropical dry forest fragments that were subjected to different logging levels (intact, intermediately and heavily logged). In each fragment, we planted 40 seedlings of each species and monitored these over a period of 1 year. The highest seedling survival rate (64%) occurred in the heavily logged fragment, which, however, also had the highest mortality risk for all species during the dry season. Only S. striata seedlings had different survival rates among the fragments. Height and diameter growth were higher at sites with higher canopy openness in the wet season. The survival and growth rates of seedlings planted in logged fragments indicate that this technique can be applied to restore and enrich logged forests of the Paranã River Basin. © 2011 The Japanese Forest Society and Springer. Source

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