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Mahendra A.,World Resources Institute | Rajagopalan L.,EMBARQ India | Rajagopalan L.,Brandeis University
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2015

Sustainable transportation interventions affect public health in three ways: through (a) reduced pollution emissions, (b) increased physical activity, and (c) reduced road accidents. The public health benefits that can be achieved through investment in sustainable transport thus are substantial. This study sought to estimate benefits from sustainable transport intervention in the city of Indore in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh through the construction of a bus rapid transit (BRT) system along a main traffic corridor. The benefits were estimated with a health impact assessment methodology developed on the basis of modal shift and vehicle kilometers traveled. With the introduction of a BRT system, the study found that about 14 lives could be saved per year as a result of an increase in walking or cycling, a decrease in private vehicle use, and a reduction in air pollution exposure. Also, more than 96 deaths could be prevented from 2013 to 2017 along the BRT corridor when compared with current trends in motorization with no BRT system investment. The reduction in emissions between a business-as-usual scenario and post-BRT scenario was 11%. The mortality risk from exposure to particulate matter of up to 2.5 μm in size could be reduced by 1.1%. Even given the limitations with respect to the data and the assumptions made in the study, the results were significant enough to recommend that public health aspects be considered in the formulation of transport policy and in the maximization of benefits.

Cooper E.,World Resources Institute | Arioli M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Carrigan A.,World Resources Institute | Jain U.,EMBARQ India
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

This paper presents a comparative analysis of bus emissions associated with a variety of fuel types, specifically for developing countries. A large data set of in-use transit bus tests is compiled for commonly regulated transportation emissions including carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. Carbon dioxide is included to help in understanding greenhouse gas emissions. A meta-analysis technique is used with 25 studies to find a range of emissions values for various fuel and exhaust aftertreatment combinations to determine which combinations provide the greatest emissions reduction. The fuels considered are diesel with various concentrations of sulfur, biodiesel (100% and 20% blend with diesel), compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and ethanol. The standard internal combustion engine, the internal combustion engine-electric hybrid, and a variety of exhaust aftertreatment technologies are considered. The analysis shows that no single fuel is best for reducing all emissions if the appropriate exhaust aftertreatment technologies are used. The technologies showing the lowest emissions in important categories (nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and carbon dioxide equivalents) are compressed natural gas with a three-way catalyst, 100% biodiesel, and ultralow sulfur diesel with selective catalyst reduction. Other factors, such as altitude, drive cycle, and mileage, also affect emissions values. A wide range of emissions values is found, even for the same fuel and technology. The variations and factors should be understood for accurate evaluation of results from further emissions testing.

Rayle L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Pai M.,EMBARQ India
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

The growth of motorization and travel activity associated with India's rapid urban development has serious implications for global climate change. Effective mitigation action requires comprehension of the scale of the problem. Data limitations, however, have thus far constrained efforts to understand how changes in demographics, travel behavior, and policy might affect future emissions of greenhouse gases. This study uses recently available data on city-level travel patterns to forecast emissions from passenger transport for three metropolitan areas in India: Mumbai, Ahmedabad, and Surat. The forecasts compare carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for three scenarios by using various mode choice and trip length assumptions. The results predict dramatic increases in emissions under all circumstances. Travel in Surat is forecast to generate between 1.9 and 9.5 million tons of CO2; in Mumbai, travel could generate 10.3 to 49 million tons. Differences, however, between scenarios suggest the potential positive effects of policy interventions. While the results help convey the magnitude of the emissions problem, further analysis requires more complete data on individual travel behavior.

Conti V.,EMBARQ India | Mahendra A.,EMBARQ India
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014

The rapid motorization of Indian cities has led to a puhlic health crisis with increased traffic injuries and fatalities, increased air pollution, and decreased physical activity. There is an urgent need to assess the health impacts of transportation to inform decision makers better ahout how to maximize the henefits and to minimize the negative impacts on health. Health impact assessment (H1A) methodologies and tools arc used exteasively in the developed world primarily to support hroader environmental Impact assessments of projects, programs, and policies, hut only recently in the transportation sector. The concept of III As is gaining traction in the developing world. However, much of the methodology and many of the indicators arc specific to the context of the developed world. Through a review of the literature and expert input from trans-portation planners and public health professionals in India, this study aims to develop the appropriate methodology for assessing the myriad health impacts from urban transportation projects, plans, and policies within the Indian context. The study develops a framework for conducting HIAs, as it focuses on modal shift and the number of kilometers traveled, to fit a city in which the measurement of health outcomes can he difficult and resource intensive. Future studies should look to expand the evidence base on health impacts and India-specific measurement tools, especially for physical activity, which will become an increasing health issue as incomes and consumption continue to grow in India.

Rangwala L.,EMBARQ India | Mathews R.,EMBARQ India | Sridhar S.,EMBARQ India
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014

The 2011 census report indicates a population of more than 12 million people in the city of Mumbai, India, over an area of 427 km2. The Comprehensive Transportation Study of 2008 for the city and its region revealed that 51 % of all trips (vehicular and nonmotorized) were made by walking and 78.2% of purely vehicular trips were made by public transportation. This high usage of public transportation and walking modes was a result of dense, mixed-use neighborhoods that traditionally agglomerated around suburban railway stations. Planning, implementation, and operations of mass transportation systems, however, are handled by agencies other than the city municipal corporation that plans land use and its regulation. Coordination between these agencies is typically a challenge and results in poor integration of transport and land use. High transit dependency and ridership have prompted city stakeholders to presume that Mumbai has naturally, over the years, adapted to transit stations; although this presumption is probably true, current realities indicate a worrisome trend. Regulations set out in the existing development plan greatly incentivize ownership of private vehicles, with excessive sops available to build parking structures, even close to railway stations. Suburbs are incentivized to proliferate in a bid to decongest the old city areas. Metro-and monorail alignments are under construction without consideration of integrating land use. This paper argues that current regulations incentivize vehicles and built densities around transit nodes. A dire need exists to rethink these regulations and develop a comprehensive transit-oriented development approach to managing high population densities around transit nodes.

Hidalgo D.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Pai M.,EMBARQ India | Carrigan A.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Bhatt A.,EMBARQ India
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Between 2005 and 2012, India's Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) invested US$20 billion in urban infrastructure and basic services for the urban poor. The transport program under JnNURM is an important advance, helping cities with policies and funding for moving people, not vehicles. Nevertheless, this program has not sufficiently shifted investment in the urban transport sector from road widening and road expansion to sustainable transport. Urban characteristics and transport needs of Indian cities derived from interviews with stakeholders and a literature review are presented. Key improvements for Indian urban transport policy are suggested: (a) reinforce the link between land use and transport to allow preservation of the built environment in existing cities and development of new accessible, dense, and mixed used developments in the fringes; (b) advance the preparation and implementation of comprehensive mobility plans, in close connection with master plans and JnNURM budget allocations; (c) introduce performance measurements of key transport indicators at the citywide level-people served, modal share, travel time, traffic fatalities, and transport tailpipe emissions; and (d) develop capacity-building programs for project planning and delivery at the city level and for evaluation and monitoring at the state and national levels. There is no claim that expansion is not needed, but it should not be the main priority of public investments in the transport sector. Recommendations for India may apply to other rapidly urbanizing and motorizing countries.

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