Bertol O.J.,EMATER |
Rizzi N.E.,Federal University of Paraná |
Favaretto N.,Federal University of Paraná |
Lana M.C.,West Parana State University
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2010
The no-till system has been intensively used in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and it has increased the nutrients level at the soil surface. This has contributed for nutrient losses via runoff and consequently, off-site water pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate phosphorus loss in surface runoff by simulated rainfall on an Oxisol, under no-till system following application of mineral fertilizer and liquid swine manure. Nitrogen, soil and water losses from the same study are reported in a separated paper. The application of liquid swine manure, compared with mineral fertilization, increased runoff concentration of total P, particulate P and dissolved reactive P by 193%, 111% and 506%, respectively, averaged for all rainfall intensities. Independently on the fertilizer source, the highest rainfall intensity provided the greatest concentration and loads of P in runoff.
Mobility of P, Cu and Zn in soil columns under no till and organic and mineral fertilization [Mobilidade de P, Cu E Zn em colunas de solo sob sistema de semeadura direta submetido às adubações mineral e orgânica]
Bertol O.J.,EMATER |
Fey E.,West Parana State University |
Favaretto N.,Federal University of Paraná |
Lavoranti O.J.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária |
Rizzi N.E.,Federal University of Paraná
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010
The retention of mineral elements applied to the soil surface is crucial to maintain water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of liquid swine manure and mineral fertilizer on leaching of P, Cu and Zn through undisturbed soil columns (height 25 cm, diameter 20.3 cm) of an Oxisol under no tillage. A water volume (10.020 cm3) corresponding to three times soil total pore volume (3,340 cm3) was continuously applied to the columns, and the sampling and analysis of the elements subdivided into five fractions. The first soil pore volume (3,340 cm3) was split into three equal portions of 1,113 cm3, and at the last two the volume of 3,340 cm3 was applied at once to the soil columns. The soil mineral elements level was determined in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-10 and 10-20 cm. In relation to the applied liquid swine manure, 99.6, 98.8 and 100% of P, Cu, and Zn was retained, respectively. Phosphorus retention of the applied mineral fertilizer was 89.7%. Regardless of the fertilizer type, the soil P, Cu and Zn levels were highest in the 0-2.5 cm layer. These results indicate the low leaching potential of these elements and the importance of soil and water conservation practices to ensure runoff retention and infiltration.
Fachinello J.C.,Federal University of Pelotas |
Pretto A.,Federal University of Pelotas |
Galarca S.P.,Emater |
Betemps D.L.,Federal University of Paraná
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different rootstocks on the yield efficiency of 'Chimarrita' and 'Maciel' peach from 2009 to 2012 in southern Rio Grande, Brazil. Eight rootstocks were tested for both cultivars: 'Aldrighi', 'Capdeboscq', 'Flordaguard', 'Nemaguard', 'Okinawa', 'Japanese Apricot', 'Tsukuba' and 'Viamão'. Trees were trained to the "V" orchard training system. The variables analyzed were accumulated production (kg tree-1), average fruit weight (g), soluble solids (°Brix), titratable acidity (meq 100 mL-1), SS/TA ratio, and firmness (N). Peach fruit production and quality of 'Chimarrita' and 'Maciel' varied among rootstocks and years. 'Tsukuba', 'Flordaguard' and 'Aldrighi' had the highest cumulative production in 'Chimarrita'. 'Okinawa' and 'Japanese Apricot' induced fruits with a higher content of soluble solids, whereas 'Japanese Apricot' resulted in a great sugar/acid ratio. In regards to 'Maciel', the greater cumulative production was provided by either rootstocks 'Capdeboscq' and 'Nemaguard'. Differences were also observed for average fruit weight, acidity and SS/TA ratio. Regardless of rootstock, 'Japanese Apricot' provided the lowest cumulative production and highest soluble solids and SS/TA ratio. © 2015 ISHS.
Fischer V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Ribeiro M.E.R.,Embrapa Clima Temperado |
Zanela M.B.,Embrapa Clima Temperado |
Marques L.T.,Doutor em Zootecnia |
And 5 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Saude e Producao Animal | Year: 2012
This paper aimed to present the main results about the unstable non acid milk (LINA). The proportion of milk samples with thermal stability below the Brazilian dairy industry standard is a serious problem, with highest occurrence at short food supply periods. It is a multi factorial problem, which causing factors are related to test execution (ethanol concentration used), to management (feeding, climate, human-animal relation), to animal (stress susceptibility, productive potential, lactation stage, sanitary condition, digestive and metabolic disorders), among others. There are doubts to the accuracy and precision of the alcohol test to detect stability problems. Dairy industry needs a fast, low price and easy test, but that can identify milk suitable to thermal processing. An adequate animal's management besides realistic parameters of milk test might contribute to improve milk stability.
Mazuchowski J.Z.,Emater |
Angelo A.C.,Federal University of Paraná
Floresta | Year: 2012
Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) cultivation for energetic purposes subsists to more than one hundred years. Typical activity in small rural properties, it is cultivated based on natural regeneration after second rotation. The wood is valuable, and it has characteristics for many alternatives of industrials uses, especially in furniture industry. After many years of expansion of the cultivated area, presently there is a gradual reduction on bracatinga's cultivation area. This research aims to identify causes of such plantings reduction and other impediments to bracatinga's producers, it also aims to define one proposal to bracatinga plantation development focusingits wood use in furniture industry. Therefore, it analyses bracatinga's producers, land ownerships and manual work accessibility, plantation managements and wood remuneration, associated to their confront against environmental public services obstructions, organizational needs of bracatinga's producers and opposition to the rural activity that is established by urban society. The data analyzed points to a reality in which bracatinga's cultivation chain will be extinguished in short time whether it is maintained the actual intervention of inspection services with rigid environmental limitations, associated to the acknowledge of rural reality by the urban society.
Collection and morphological characterization of sweet potato landraces in north of Rio de Janeiro state [Coleta e caracterização morfológica de variedades locais de batata-doce no norte do Rio de Janeiro]
Moulin M.M.,UENF LMGV |
Rodrigues R.,UENF LMGV |
Goncalves L.S.A.,UENF LMGV |
Sudre C.P.,UENF LMGV |
And 2 more authors.
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2012
The traditional farmers play an important role in plant genetic resources conservation. Collecting the germplasm maintained by these farmers is a very important action to avoid genetic variability losses. The goals of this work were to collect sweet potato from farms in the north of Rio de Janeiro state; to gather information regarding to the farmers profile, and to characterize the sweet potato landraces collected using morphological descriptors. Fifty three farms were visited in six collection expedition and 46 accessions were collected. During the visits the farmers were interviewed using a query with ten items. Six root traits and eight descriptors for vegetative parts were used for morphological characterization. The data were analyzed based on Cole-Rodgers distance and clustering was done with UPGMA method. Familiar agriculture with subsistence objective was observed and sweet potato was cultivated by 72% of the farmers at least for more than a decade, supporting the observation that this vegetable is traditionally cultivated in small areas in the specific region. The morphological characterization was efficient to detect genetic variability among accessions, revealing that traditional farmers from Campos dos Goytacazes and São João da Barra are responsible for sweet potato genotypes conservation with expressive genetic diversity in their properties. There was no relationship between genetic distance and collecting areas.
Neto C.P.C.T.,EMATER |
de Medeiros J.F.,UFERSA |
Gheyi H.R.,UFRB |
Dias N.S.,UFERSA |
And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2012
A study was carried out aiming to investigate management strategies for use of brackish water in the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in two cultivars of melon (C1 - Sancho and C2 - Medellin) irrigated with low (S1 = 0.61 dS m-1) and high (S2 = 4.78 dS m-1) salinity water in different phases of crop: S1S1S2S2 - T1, S2S1S2S2 - T2, S2S2S1S2 - T3. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th term correspond, respectively, to different phases - initial growth, flowering, fruit maturation and harvest. Alternate irrigation during the crop cycle, two days of consecutive application with S1 water followed by one day with S2 water (S1 2 days + S2 1day - T4) and irrigation with S2 water throughout the cycle - T5 was also tested. Furthermore, as control, management practice at the farm where the experiment was conducted consisting of irrigation with a mixture of 37% S1 water and 63% of S2 water -T0 was used. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 split-plots with four replications. The total dry matter accumulation in shoots of cv. Sancho was greater than Medellín in all management strategies. The nutrients required most by the two cultivars were calcium, potassium and nitrogen.
Calla lily inflorescences postharvest: Pulsing with different sucrose concentrations and storage conditions1 [Conservação pós-colheita de inflorescências de copo-de-leite: Pulsing com diferentes concentrações de sacarose e condições de armazenamento1]
Almeida E.F.A.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais EPAMIG |
Paiva P.D.O.,Federal University of Lavras |
Lima L.C.O.,Federal University of Lavras |
Silva F.C.,EMATER |
And 2 more authors.
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2011
Calla lily is an appreciated specie used for flower arrangements. In spite of its commercial importance, there is little information on calla lily postharvest conservation. Thus, this study aimed to determine the best sucrose concentration for pulsing and cold storage conditions to extend calla lily postharvest durability. Flower stalks were submitted to a pulsing pre-treatment using 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16% sucrose in the solution, for one hour, plus a treatment with direct storage in cold chamber (4°C), without a prior-treatment. Dry storage or storage in solution with the commercial product Flower® was also tested. A completely randomized design was used with four replicates and three inflorescences per plot. Spathe length and width were daily measured from which the opening and wilting processes were analyzed. It was observed that pulsing with sucrose was efficient in extending calla lily inflorescences opening process and durability. Dry storage for short periods (less than six days) can also be used, but a prior-treatment with 12% sucrose pulsing for one hour or with a water supply for the same period was required. For storage in solution, a pulsing with 5% or 7.5% sucrose was recommended.
Silva A.S.,Instituto Federal Baiano |
da Silva I.F.,Federal University of Paraiba |
Neto L.F.S.,Embrapa Solos |
de Souza C.,Emater
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011
When efficiently introduced, no-tillage system benefices soil and crops. In Brazil, no-tillage studies are concentrated in South and Center-west regions, being necessary information about it in Northeast region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the no-tillage influence on maize yield under rainfed agriculture in Northeast Brazil, in an experiment conducted during seven years. The crops of maize (Zea mays) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were used in three soil management systems: maize in conventional tillage (CC), maize in no-tillage (SD), maize in no-tillage plus pigeon pea sowed in the interrow (SG), with presence and absence of mineral N, P and K fertilization. Soil samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the experiment to determine soil bulk density, soil particle density, total porosity, dry and wet mean weight aggregate diameters and aggregate stability index. It was also quantified soil cover rate and maize yield. The soil porosity and aggregate stability were lower after the study period. Soil coverage increased significantly, about 96 % of the area under SD and SG systems, early in the culture development. Mineral fertilization and no-tillage systems highly influenced the maize yield. The rainfall was the factor that caused greater variability on the results of this study.
Lima S.F.,Federal University of Goais |
Timossi P.C.,Federal University of Goais |
Almeida D.P.,São Paulo State University |
Planta Daninha | Year: 2014
The success of conservation systems such as no-till depends on adequate soil cover throughout the year, which is possible through the use of cover crops. For this purpose the species belonging to the genus Urochloa has stood out by virtue of its hardiness and tolerance to drought. Aiming ground cover for the no-till system, the objective was to evaluate the establishment of two species of the genus Urochloa, in three sowing methods, in the weed suppression and the sensitivity of these forages to glyphosate. The study design was a randomized block with a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, in which factor A was composed of Urochloa ruziziensis and Urochloa hybrid CIAT 36087 cv. Mulato II, factor B was formed by sowing methods: sown without embedding, sown with light embedding and sown in rows, and factor C was composed of three doses of glyphosate (0.975, 1.625 and 2.275 kg ha-1 of acid equivalent). For determination of weed suppression, assessment of biomass yield and soil cover was performed, by brachiaria and weeds, at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 258 days after sowing. Visual assessment of the desiccation efficiency at 7 and 14 days after herbicide application was performed. It is concluded that embedding Urochloa seeds stands out in relation to sowing in the soil surface. Urochloa ruziziensis is more efficient in the dry weight yield, weed suppression, in addition to being more sensitive to glyphosate herbicide. © 2014 Planta Daninha All rights received.