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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.60M | Year: 2010

Current ECM process technology is limited in machining accuracy and process stability. The primary reason for this limitation is that the power supply units, which are at the heart of ECM are traditionally designed for the millisecond pulsed current range. Developing a power supply unit that has the capability of pulsing in the microsecond / nanosecond range, will result in more control of the process and better product, leading to improved uptimes on the shop floor and improved product quality. The SME partners in this project consortium have identified a commercial opportunity for a new generation of ECM that can offer: - Improved process stability and control - Increased accuracy (at a micron level) - Better process uptime and increased efficiency / outputs - Consistently better performing and better quality products - Shorter product development lead time This project will undertake the research and development work necessary to ensure that the SMEs in the consortium can realise this commercial opportunity through the development of a power supply unit (SMPS) that can support the next generation of ECM. The project aims to develop an SMPS that will deliver quicker electrical current pulsing rates in the microsecond / nanosecond range, resulting in an ECM with a machining accuracy better than 1 micron. The project will also develop a demonstrator / prototype that will be used for validating and demonstrating the next generation ECM. Based on research undertaken by CDAMC (in conjunction with SMPS manufacturers and suppliers), it is clear that power units in this performance range are currently not commercially available. The availability of a new generation of SMPS could result in a major step change in ECM capability and help sustain Europes leading position in ECM technology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.1 | Award Amount: 4.69M | Year: 2008

The CopPeR project will provide a novel copper deposition process based on the useof non-aqueous solvents to overcome the limitations of currently employedinterconnect formation processes enabling device scaling beyond the 32 nmtechnology node. This non-aqueous process will open novel routes to implementdirect on barrier plating, focussing on tantalum and ruthenium as diffusion barriers.As another main advantage the process developed and implemented within theCopPeR project will significantly improve the quality of the Cu metallization due to thefact that more space is available in trenches for high quality, low resistivity Cu, due tothe fact that the resistivity limiting seed-Cu will be eliminated and thinner barrier filmscan be applied, e.g. by ALD (atomic layer deposition).CopPeR will achieve the final goal through collaborations within a very strongconsortium based on a team with outstanding scientific, engineering andmanufacturing qualifications. In a first phase, electrolyte ingredients will be selectedand experimentally verified, a deposition cell designed through modelling andsimulation as well as new analytical techniques evaluated to enable adequateanalysis of the deposited films. The second phase will focus on the development ofthe copper deposition process based on the findings from phase one with theadditional support of micro-modelling and the process scaled and integrated into a300mm proof-of-concept. In the third and final phase, the process will be integratedinto a complete interconnect scheme, and optimized according to the industrial chipmanufacturers needs.

Bortels L.,Elsyca N.V.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2012

Cases of close proximity of high voltage transmission lines and metallic pipelines become more and more frequent in high population density regions. Therefore, there is a growing concern about possible hazards resulting from the influence of electrical systems: safety of people making contact with the pipeline, damage to the pipeline and CP equipment. Hence it is not surprising that there is an industrial need for mitigating AC interference. This paper will discuss capabilities of a software tool to predict AC currents and voltages induced on metallic structures near AC power lines by electromagnetic induction, and resistive coupling effects. Situations can be studied under normal operational conditions as well as for the occurrence of fault currents. Most available computer programs limit the modeling capabilities to parallel or near parallel geometries. In addition, most of them are restricted in the number of pipelines, transmission lines and (direct) bonds that can be modeled. This is a serious restriction since in many corridors a large number of pipelines are bonded together, e.g. for cathodic protection purposes. Furthermore, handling of the software can be cumbersome and time-consuming (e.g. manual adding of routings versus being able to read in GPS coordinates) and requires a computer expert rather than a CP engineer to be able to work with it. For this reason the number of simulations done (especially in the mitigation case for fault currents) is most often very limited due to time and budget restrictions. Given the complexity of the problems dealt with nowadays it is easy to understand that this can have a negative impact on the final design since not all possible scenarios have been accounted for. In this article a software that is linked to the customers asset database will be presented. The software directly converts the complete routing in a numerical model directly taking into account all geometrical and electrical properties. An automated fault current module that faults each individual tower of all power lines allows taking into account all possible scenarios in the mitigation design. It will be demonstrated how field data are used to update the model with realistic coating values and how the model can be used to find anomalies in the input data. Secondly, the effect of different operating scenarios is studied in order to predict mitigation for safe operation conditions. ©2012 by NACE International.

Krissa L.J.,Enbridge Inc. | Baete C.,Elsyca n.v. | DeWitt J.,Enbridge Inc.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2016

The preferred method of new pipeline construction for a major liquid products transmission company at significant watercourse and roadway crossings is horizontal directional drilling (HDD). This Operator is responsible for a pipeline network with a total length of over 25 000 km's containing 100's of HDD and bored crossings throughout North America. Pipelines installed by HDD have an increased likelihood of experiencing coating damage as opposed to those constructed through conventional open trench techniques. Currently available methods for identifying damaged coating regions within pipe installed by HDD cannot always provide absolute or accurate information on the location, size and geometry of the holidays. Although cathodic protection monitoring at HDD locations can be validated within the entry/exit extremities; the region between is either assumed or speculated. Additionally, soil resisivity variations may adversely affect CP current distribution, leaving coating some coating defects in high resistivity areas unprotected and susceptible to corrosion. The Company has initiated a comprehensive evaluation of the CP performance at HDD locations. The approach utilizes a combination of monitoring techniques and field surveys with computational modeling technology to ascertain the external corrosion threat on pipelines within HDD locations. This article discusses a proof-of-concept for measuring procedures and demonstrates how field data is applied into computational modeling for predicting the CP effectiveness throughout critical, inaccessible regions of the HDD's. © 2016 by NACE International.

Krissa L.J.,Enbridge Inc. | Baete C.,Elsyca n.v. | De Witt J.,Enbridge Inc.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2015

The report discusses cathodic protection (CP) experiences on the world's longest, most complex crude oil and liquid hydrocarbon transportation system; having 24,738 kilometers (15,372 miles) of pipeline throughout North America. Since initial construction of the first pipeline in 1949, infrastructure has continually been enhanced and improved to meet the needs of the Company's shippers. The expansion has resulted in areas of the mainline corridor where up to seven (7) parallel pipelines are contained within the same right-of-way (ROW). The evolution of construction materials over the course of the Company's long operating history has contributed to the diversity within the ROW. Early coating systems included asphalt, coal tar epoxy, and mummy-wrap. Polyethylene tape coated pipe was installed in the late 1960's and 1970's. Since the 1980's, the Company has favored high performance coatings such as fusion bonded epoxy, dual layer epoxies, and high performance composite/powder (HPCC/HPPC). Presently, the ROW includes an assortment of pipeline vintages with various diameters and coating types which can consequently result in unbalanced CP levels. This Project includes in-depth research and analysis of various methods, procedures, and materials beneficial in regulating and maintaining appropriate levels of CP in complex multi-pipeline corridors. Associated rectifiers are all furnished with remote monitoring equipment and the majority of test stations have been retrofit with coupons enabling remote surveillance of real time CP/AC potentials and corresponding current densities. All Project pipelines are regularly evaluated using inline inspection tools equipped with technologies to identify metal loss, and some of the pipelines have been inspected using inline tools capable of evaluating CP currents flowing in the pipe wall. These data have been consolidated and used to generate a computational model providing a more accurate representation of CP levels on each pipeline within the shared ROW. The purpose of such a model is to refine testing procedures, develop corrective measures and establish new guidelines for optimizing CP operation and effectiveness within ROWs containing multiple pipelines. Rationally managing and harmonizing CP levels within such multifaceted arrangements is necessary to accommodate the pipelines having a high current demand, while avoiding the detrimental effects of overprotection on adjacent, newer pipelines with high efficiency coating systems. © 2015 by Nace International.

Bortels L.,Elsyca NV | Parlongue J.,Elsyca NV | Fieltsch W.,Corrosion Service Co. | Segall S.M.,Corrosion Service Co.
Materials Performance | Year: 2010

A software suite for alternating currents (AC) predictive and mitigation techniques has been developed that allows the modeling of any number of pipelines, high voltage transmission and bonds without any restriction on the complexity of the geometry. The global positioning system (GPS) or flat coordinates from pipelines and high-voltage transmission lines can be used directly as input for the simulations and varying dimensions and electrical parameters along the rights-of-way (ROW). The software enables to model double-layer soil configurations and non-uniform grounding resistance for poles/towers, and calculates the ground potential rise (GPR) and touch potential along the complete pipeline network. The model has been applied to two different configurations such as the crossing between a new 144-kV powerline and an existing 24-in pipeline and a 30-in pipeline gathering system influenced by three powerlines.

Baete C.,Elsyca N.V.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2015

An offshore jacket complex from the late sixties consisting of 5 platforms is protected by a conventional sacrificial anode system. Recent surveys have indicated that extending end service life with a minimum of 20 years requires a significant retrofit effort in the near future. Since replacement of individual anodes on a like-forlike basis would be very expensive, a retrofit option based on remote impressed current anode sleds was considered offering very considerable cost savings. Remote ICCP anode sleds are relative easy to install but the design of such a CP system is more challenging. Correct positioning of the sleds is critical for obtaining proper protection and avoiding overprotection. In this particular project the availability of target locations was limited because of various subsea pipelines connected to the platforms and two large jack-up zones that should remain accessible. The feasibility of using an ICCP system was therefore investigated through computational modeling. First the asis CP status of the complex was simulated taking into account the current condition of the sacrificial anodes as observed during the latest survey. Secondly, an ICCP system was included in the model and different anode sled positions were investigated until an optimal design was obtained. The remaining life of the anodes was recalculated such that the amount of anode sleds was kept to a minimum. Through modeling the CP effectiveness of the combined system was validated and a cost-effective solution was proposed. © 2015 by Nace International.

A device suitable for the electrochemical processing of an object is at least provided with a chamber that is to accommodate an electrolyte, a support for the object that is to be processed in the chamber, at least one set of electrodes located in the chamber such that during operation at least one electrode is located opposite each portion of a surface of said object that is to be processed. The device also includes a controller configured to provide an electric current between the object that is to be processed and the electrodes.

A device suitable for the electrochemical processing of an object is at least provided with a chamber that is to accommodate an electrolyte, means for supporting the object that is to be processed in said chamber, at least one set of electrodes extending parallel to each other, which electrodes are located in said chamber such that during operation at least one electrode is located opposite each portion of a surface of said object that is to be processed, as well as control means for providing an electric current between the object that is to be processed and the electrodes. A number of electrodes is arranged with fixed spacings on nodes of a raster pattern, whilst at least one electrode is located at a position shifted with respect to the nearest node of the raster pattern.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: FTIPilot-1-2015 | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2016

Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal very harmful to health and the environment. Lead is particularly harmful to children resulting in 600,000 new cases of children with intellectual disabilities every year due to Lead exposure. Cost-benefit analysis suggests that, in France alone, overall benefit of 22.72 billion/year could be achieved in terms of avoiding future medical interventions, limiting the need for special education and increasing future productivity by reducing Lead exposure. The European Commission has been working on reducing Lead exposure in different areas. Despite this, the large-bore engine industry still heavily relies on Lead-based journal bearings. 7 tonnes of Lead will be released to the environment from large-bore engines manufactured in 2015. This amount of Lead would be enough to potentially poison 2 times the global population. BeLEADFREE aims to deliver novel Lead-free journal bearings to large-bore engine builders worldwide, ranging from medium and heavy-duty diesel engines (e.g. commercial road vehicles) to large four-stroke medium-speed engines (e.g. ships, engine generators or gensets). This will be achieved by optimising novel manufacturing approaches that have proven successful at TRL6 and designing and building a pilot line to manufacture Lead-free journal bearings to be validated in real engine working conditions. The completion of the project will ensure the initial market take-up of the new product and its implementation in manufacturing businesses in EU. The proposed project will be conducted by a multidisciplinary consortium with two industrial partners, Daido Industrial Bearings Europe Ltd. (1st time industry applicant and project co-ordinator) and Elsyca NV (SME), who will be supported by academic partners IK4-Tekniker and Coventry University who have a strong experience in applied research and knowledge transfer from Academia to Industry.

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