Raffestin C.,University of Geneva |
Butler S.A.,Elon University
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2012
In this paper I reconstitute my own approach to the notions of space, territory, and territoriality. Developing from the early 1970s, my thoughts resided in the effort devoted to deriving from space the idea of territory qua production by the projection of labor, a Janus-faced category composed of energy and information. The construction of territory is the consequence of territor- ialityo-defined as the ensemble of relations that a society maintains with exteriority and alterity for the satisfaction of its needs, towards the end of attaining the greatest possible autonomy compatible with the resources of the system. I also propose a descriptive model utilizable in the production of territory as well as in the production of representations of this territory in making available images' or landscapes. In the conclusion I draw attention to the fact that if labor is always a mediator, it is not thereby any less subordinated to the money whose possessors are in a position to alienate labor by subjecting it to orientations that can be undesirable. Money accelerates the process of territorialization, deterritorialization, and reterritorialization. Geography, by considering only territorial productions, has neglected to take up the issue of labor; consequently, it has not been able to demonstrate the effects on labor of money as a mediator that has rendered everything more and more fluid. © 2012 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.
Manring S.L.,Elon University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014
Sustainable development activities are comprised of complex sets of social, economic, and ecological factors. Cross-scale knowledge and applications are increasingly valuable today in achieving successful interdisciplinary action research collaborations among universities and other stakeholders in order to understand and manage the predictable and unpredictable transformative change possibilities in social-ecological systems. This paper analyzes case studies of two complex regional social-ecological systems that illustrate the dynamic interactions between human societies and natural systems. The framework of panarchy, which integrates the cross-scales and domains of social, economic, and environmental systems, is incorporated as a means of examining the dimensions of adaptability and resilience, and the evolution of these social-ecological systems as stakeholder learning networks. The practical intent of using case studies is threefold: 1. To demonstrate how a holistic synthesis of these multi-domain frameworks can enrich descriptive and prescriptive analyses of social-ecological systems phenomena, 2. To make these integrative frameworks and analytical tools more readily useful for students, university educators, researchers and academic-practitioners, to incorporate into interdisciplinary curricula, teaching, research and practice, and 3. To offer these cross-domain tools to facilitate integrative action research collaborative partnerships among educators, researchers, academic-practitioners, and other social-ecological system stakeholders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chunco A.J.,Elon University
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014
Climate change is profoundly affecting the evolutionary trajectory of individual species and ecological communities, in part through the creation of novel species assemblages. How climate change will influence competitive interactions has been an active area of research. Far less attention, however, has been given to altered reproductive interactions. Yet, reproductive interactions between formerly isolated species are inevitable as populations shift geographically and temporally as a result of climate change, potentially resulting in introgression, speciation, or even extinction. The susceptibility of hybridization rates to anthropogenic disturbance was first recognized in the 1930s. To date, work on anthropogenically mediated hybridization has focused primarily on either physical habitat disturbance or species invasion. Here, I review recent literature on hybridization to identify how ecological responses to climate change will increase the likelihood of hybridization via the dissolution of species barriers maintained by habitat, time, or behavior. Using this literature, I identify several cases where novel hybrid zones have recently formed, likely as a result of changing climate. Future research should focus on identifying areas and taxonomic groups where reproductive species interactions are most likely to be influenced by climate change. Furthermore, a better understanding of the evolutionary consequences of climate-mediated secondary contact is urgently needed. Paradoxically, hybridization is both a major conservation concern and an important source of novel genetic and phenotypic variation. Hybridization may therefore both contribute to increasing rates of extinction and stimulate the creation of novel phenotypes that will speed adaptation to novel climates. Predicting which result will occur following secondary contact will be an important contribution to conservation for many species. Climate change is dramatically altering the distribution and behavior of thousands of species. An increased opportunity for hybridization is one potential consequence of this reshuffling of biodiversity. This work reviews current examples of climate-mediated hybridization and provides suggestions for future areas of research. © 2014 The Author. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Xu Q.,Elon University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014
For online consumer reviews to serve as decision-making aids, users have to first trust the reviewer. However, unlike face-to-face communication, where trust develops overtime, consumers have to rely on personal profile information to establish confidence in the reviewer in online shopping context. These personal profile characteristics may serve as cues of source credibility. This study adopts a 2 (number of trusted members: small, large) × 2 (profile picture: without, with) × 2 (review valence: negative, positive) between-participants experiment to explore how two personal profile characteristics, reputation cue and profile picture, influence cognitive trust and affective trust towards the reviewer and perceived review credibility respectively and in a combinatory manner. The findings of the study showed that reputation cue and profile picture cue contributed differently to users' affective trust and cognitive trust towards the reviewer. Reputation cue, generated by the system, was found to influence both affective and cognitive dimensions of trust, whereas the self-generated cue of profile picture affected only affective trust. Reputation cue had a direct influence on perceived review credibility, whereas the influence of profile picture on perceived review credibility was dependent upon review valence. The implications of these findings are discussed in the paper. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: IUSE | Award Amount: 161.07K | Year: 2014
Many educators acknowledge that the millennial generation of students learns like no other, yet little has been done to alter laboratory instruction in response to this generational shift. This project will conduct educational research that evaluates the use of the Case Study Teaching in the Sciences method to improve laboratory instruction. This educational pedagogy promotes the use of cases, or interactive stories, to engage students in STEM courses and to help reform STEM instruction. The cases will be used to introduce the lab concepts as a way to bring relevance to the analytical skills being learned in the lab. The overarching goal for this project is to reform laboratory step-by-step instruction to a method that will be more active, engaging and relevant to millennial learners. More specifically, the project will evaluate student learning preferences, student engagement, retention of material, and learning of course concepts using the case studies method. Qualitative and quantitative assessment will be conducted to evaluate student perceptions for use of the methods, student learning gains, and critical thinking of students in biology, environmental engineering, and introductory engineering courses. This study will evaluate and compare data based on gender, ethnicity, and institutional type across three very different university environments. This work has the potential for broad impact because there is widespread interest in improving educational practices across STEM fields. The goal for this work will be to determine if the case studies for laboratory instruction can potentially provide a crosscutting new paradigm for lab instruction.