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Theis N.,Elms College | Barber N.A.,Northern Illinois University | Gillespie S.D.,Simon Fraser University | Hazzard R.V.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Adler L.S.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Premise of the study: Floral traits play important roles in pollinator attraction and defense against floral herbivory. However, plants may experience trade-offs between conspicuousness to pollinators and herbivore attraction. Comparative studies provide an excellent framework to examine the role of multiple traits shaping mutualist and antagonist interactions. Methods: To assess whether putative defensive and attractive traits predict species interactions, we grew 20 different Cucur-bitaceae species and varieties in the field to measure interactions with pollinators and herbivores and in the greenhouse to assess trait variation. Cucurbits are characterized by the production of cucurbitacins, bitter nonvolatile terpenoids that are effective against generalist herbivores but can attract specialist beetles. We determined whether plant traits such as cucurbitacins predict herbivore resistance and pollinator attraction using an information-theoretic approach. Key results: Mutualists and floral antagonists were attracted to the same cucurbit varieties once they flowered. However, rather than cucurbitacin concentration, we found that the size of the flower and volatile emissions of floral sesquiterpenoids explained both pollinator and floral herbivore visitation preference across cucurbit taxa. This pattern held across cucurbit taxa and within the Cucurbita genus. Conclusions: Surprisingly, floral sesquiterpenoid volatiles, which are associated with direct defense, indirect defense, and attraction, rather than defense traits such as cucurbitacins, appeared to drive interactions with both pollinators and floral herbivores across cucurbit taxa. Identifying the relevant plant traits for attraction and deterrence is important in this economically valuable crop, particularly if pollinators and floral herbivores use the same plant traits as cues. © 2014 Botanical Society of America. Source


Grady A.M.,Personal Touch Home Care | Grady A.M.,Elms College
Home Healthcare Nurse | Year: 2014

The Latino population is the fastest growing ethnically diverse group in the United States, but U.S. healthcare studies report poorer health status in this population than in non-Latinos. Using Campinha-BacoteÊs Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals - Revised (IAPCC-R, 2003), a single-session pilot educational program to enhance culturally responsive home care nursing to Latinos resulted in a 27% increase in the nurse participant cultural competency levels. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Tjiurutue M.C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Sandler H.A.,UMass Cranberry Experiment Station | Kersch-Becker M.F.,Cornell University | Kersch-Becker M.F.,University of Campinas | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2016

Parasitic plants are common in many ecosystems, where they can structure community interactions and cause major economic damage. For example, parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp.) can cause up to 80–100 % yield loss in heavily infested cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) patches. Despite their ecological and economic importance, remarkably little is known about how parasitic plants affect, or are affected by, host chemistry. To examine chemically-mediated interactions between dodder and its cranberry host, we conducted a greenhouse experiment asking whether: (1) dodder performance varies with cranberry cultivar; (2) cultivars differ in levels of phytohormones, volatiles, or phenolics, and whether such variation correlates with dodder parasitism; (3) dodder parasitism induced changes in phytohormones, volatiles, or phenolics, and whether the level of inducible response varied among cultivars. We used five cranberry cultivars to assess host attractiveness to dodder and dodder performance. Dodder performance did not differ across cultivars, but there were marginally significant differences in host attractiveness to dodder, with fewer dodder attaching to Early Black than to any other cultivar. Dodder parasitism induced higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) across cultivars. Cultivars differed in overall levels of flavonols and volatile profiles, but not phenolic acids or proanthocyanidins, and dodder attachment induced changes in several flavonols and volatiles. While cultivars differed slightly in resistance to dodder attachment, we did not find evidence of chemical defenses that mediate these interactions. However, induction of several defenses indicates that parasitism alters traits that could influence subsequent interactions with other species, thus shaping community dynamics. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Kear T.,Villanova University | Evans E.,Renal Medicine Associates | Hain D.,Florida Atlantic University | Hain D.,Cleveland Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infection Prevention | Year: 2013

Catheter-related bloodstream infection is a major cause of patient morbidity, mortality, and cost for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Healthcare personnel have control over central venous catheter care in the healthcare setting, but patient practices in the home environment may play a role in catheter-related infections. This qualitative study investigated hemodialysis catheter-related care in the home environment and developed an understanding of the experience of catheter care for which patients were responsible. The themes that emerged from the data were perceptions of catheter care practices, feelings of freedom, fear, a few frustrations, and patient empowerment. The findings from the analysis provide a snapshot of the variability in catheter care practices in the home as self-reported by the patients undergoing hemodialysis before and after involvement in a protocol that eliminated the dressing over the catheter insertion site and taught participants ways to care for the site during showering. The data may be used to inform care that decreases catheter-related infections, to describe the impact of showering on catheter-related infections, and to influence patient adherence to best practices through enhanced patient empowerment, comfort, control, and perceptions of personal hygiene. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Rivers A.,Regional Mental Health Center | Wickramasekera I.E.,Naropa University | Pekala R.J.,Coatesville Medical Center | Rivers J.A.,Elms College
American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis | Year: 2016

This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard’s (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the “fantasy prone” personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). Copyright © American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. Source

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