Nashville, TN, United States
Nashville, TN, United States

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Moody E.E.,Union University at Jackson | Lewokzco K.,Union University at Jackson | Wilson R.,Ellington Agricultural Center
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Human and equine outbreaks caused by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) typically occur in North America adjacent to coastal wetlands associated with the presence of Culiseta melanura (Coquillet) mosquitoes. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) is an emerging disease in Tennessee, as the first records of equine disease began in 2002. In 2006 we trapped and tested mosquitoes for EEEV at hardwood swamps in western Tennessee that were at the epicenter of a multi-equine outbreak in fall of 2005. Additionally, the Tennessee Valley Authority tested mosquito pools collected in Tennessee swamps from 2000 to 2007 for the presence of arboviruses. Two pools of EEEV positive Culex erraticus (Dyer and Knab) mosquitoes were found (one each in 2003 and 2004) in a county adjacent to where the 2005 outbreak occurred. In 2008, another EEE outbreak involving multiple horses occurred in West Tennessee. A brain specimen was collected from a horse during this outbreak and the first isolate of EEEV from Tennessee was obtained. In total, 74,531 mosquitoes collected from 2000 to 2008 were tested via polymerase chain reaction and VecTest for EEEV. The traditional enzootic vector, Cs. melanura, was found in low numbers at all collection sites. Cx. erraticus, however, was consistently found in high numbers and was the only mosquito species in which EEEV was detected. We suggest that EEE transmission may be maintained by Cx. erraticus in a nontraditional cycle. We discuss the importance of a nontraditional cycle from the perspective of EEEV adaptation and emergence. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Grant J.F.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Windham M.T.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Haun W.G.,Ellington Agricultural Center | Wiggins G.J.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Lambdin P.L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Forests | Year: 2011

In 2010, thousand cankers disease (TCD) was documented in Tennessee, representing the first confirmation of this disease in the native range of black walnut and the first known incidence of TCD east of Colorado. Tennessee Department of Agriculture personnel conducted surveys to determine the extent of TCD in counties in eastern Tennessee. Samples of symptomatic black walnuts were sent to the University of Tennessee for processing. The causative agents, walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, and the fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida, were documented on the same trees in four counties. Tree mortality was observed in two counties, and tree decline was observed in at least 10 counties although it may be attributed to previous droughts or to TCD. In 2010, four confirmed counties were quarantined by TDA, and 10 buffer counties were also regulated. Research is underway to further assess the incidence and impact of TCD on black walnut in Tennessee. © 2011 by the authors.

Hooie N.A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Wiggins G.J.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Lambdin P.L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Grant J.F.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | And 2 more authors.
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The parasitoid Spathius agrili Yang, introduced in the USA to suppress populations of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has been recovered at a release site for the first time in eastern Tennessee after a single year of releases. Other native parasitoids, including Spathius floridanus Ashmead, undetermined species of Spathius (possibly Spathius elegans Matthews and Spathius parvulus Matthews) and Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh & Strazanac, also known to be associated with EAB, were recovered. These recoveries represent the first documentation of these four species, including the introduced S. agrili, associated with EAB in the southern USA. Implications for biological control efforts against EAB are discussed. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.

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