Ella Foundation

Hyderabad andhra Pradesh, India

Ella Foundation

Hyderabad andhra Pradesh, India
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Hegde N.R.,Ella Foundation | Gore M.M.,National Institute of Virology
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2017

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious public health concern in most of Asia. The disease is caused by JE virus (JEV), a flavivirus transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Several vaccines have been developed to control JE in endemic areas as well as to protect travelers and military personnel who visit or are commissioned from non-endemic to endemic areas. The vaccines include inactivated vaccines produced in mouse brain or cell cultures, live attenuated vaccines, and a chimeric vaccine based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D vaccine strain. All the marketed vaccines belong to the JEV genotype III, but have been shown to be efficacious against other genotypes and strains, with varying degrees of cross-neutralization, albeit at levels deemed to be protective. The protective responses have been shown to last three or more years, depending on the type of vaccine and the number of doses. This review presents a brief account of the different JE vaccines, their immunogenicity and protective ability, and the impact of JE vaccines in reducing the burden of disease in endemic countries. © 2017 Taylor & Francis.


Hegde N.R.,Ella Foundation | Kaveri S.V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kaveri S.V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Kaveri S.V.,University of Paris Descartes | And 2 more authors.
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2011

Despite remarkable progress in the control of infectious diseases through vaccination, better delivery systems have been poorly explored. There is renewed interest in the discovery of novel vaccines and adjuvants owing to emerging and reemerging diseases and the burden and complexity of chronic infectious diseases. Conversely, the need for rapid local, regional, mucosal or parenteral bioavailability has led to advances in delivery systems and devices. Here, we present recent developments in the field of non-invasive cutaneous delivery of vaccines for infectious diseases. Transdermal delivery using microneedles could revolutionize the way prophylactic interventions for infectious diseases are carried out in the future. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rao P.P.,Ella Foundation | Reddy Y.N.,Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University | Ganesh K.,Genotypic Technology and 259 | Nair S.G.,Genotypic Technology and 259 | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2013

Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important endemic disease of livestock in tropics and subtropics. In addition, its recent spread to temperate regions like North America and Northern Europe is of serious concern. Rapid serotyping and characterization of BT virus (BTV) is an essential step in the identification of origin of the virus and for controlling the disease. Serotyping of BTV is typically performed by serum neutralization, and of late by nucleotide sequencing. This report describes the near complete genome sequencing and typing of two isolates of BTV using Illumina next generation sequencing platform. Two of the BTV RNAs were multiplexed with ten other unknown samples. Viral RNA was isolated and fragmented, reverse transcribed, the cDNA ends were repaired and ligated with a multiplex oligo. The genome library was amplified using primers complementary to the ligated oligo and subjected to single and paired end sequencing. The raw reads were assembled using a de novo method and reference-based assembly was performed based on the contig data. Near complete sequences of all segments of BTV were obtained with more than 20× coverage, and single read sequencing method was sufficient to identify the genotype and serotype of the virus. The two viruses used in this study were typed as BTV-1 and BTV-9E. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Telangana State Veterinary Biological & Research Institute, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, University of Nottingham, Ella Foundation and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016

Bluetongue is endemic in India and has been reported from most Indian states. Of late, the clinical disease is most frequently seen in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (erstwhile Andhra Pradesh state), Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Our analysis of diagnostic samples from bluetongue outbreaks during 2010-2011 from the state of Karnataka identified bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 5 (BTV-5) for the first time in India. One of the diagnostic samples (CH1) and subsequent virus isolate (IND2010/02) contained both BTV-2 and BTV-5. Segment 2 (seg-2) sequence data (400bp: nucleotides 2538-2921) for IND2010/02-BTV5, showed 94.3% nucleotide identity to BTV-5 from South Africa (Accession no. AJ585126), confirming the virus serotype and also indicating that Seg-2 was derived from a Western topotype, which is in contrast to serotype 2, that belongs to an Eastern topotype. BTV-5 has been recently reported from Africa, China, French islands and the Americas. Although the exact source of the Indian BTV-5 isolate is still to be confirmed, recent identification of additional exotic serotypes in India is of real concern and might add to the severity of the disease seen in these outbreaks.


Basavaraj V.H.,Vydehi Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Sampath G.,King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research | Hegde N.R.,Ella Foundation | Mohan V.K.,Bharat Biotech International Ltd | Ella K.M.,Bharat Biotech International Ltd
Vaccine | Year: 2014

The clinical evaluation of the MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine HNVAC in adults aged 18-65 years is reported. In the Phase I randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre study, 160 subjects were parallelly assigned 3:1 to vaccine:placebo groups (n= 60:20) with both the aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations. A single dose of both the formulations containing 15 μg of haemagglutinin protein showed minimal adverse reactions, the most common of which were pain at injection site (11.67%) and fever (10.00%). Both formulations produced 74-81% seroprotection (SRP: titre of ≥40), 67-70% seroconversion (SRC: four-fold increase in titres between days 0 and 21), and a four-fold increase in geometric mean titres (GMT). Aluminium hydroxide did not have a significant effect either on immunogenicity or on reactogenicity. Nevertheless, based on its recognized positive effects on the stability and immunogenicity of many vaccines, and its marginal benefit in both pre-clinical and Phase I studies of HNVAC, alum adjuvanted HNVAC was further tested in a staggered Phase II/III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre study of 200 and 195 subjects, respectively, parallelly assigned 4:1 to adjuvanted vaccine and placebo groups. In these studies, the most common adverse reactions were pain at injection site (6.88% and 5.77% in Stage 1 and Stage 2, respectively) and fever (7.50% and 7.05%, respectively), and a single dose resulted in 87-90% SRP, 85-86% SRC, and a nearly six-fold increase in GMT, meeting or exceeding licensing criteria. It is concluded that HNVAC is safe and immunogenic to adults of 18-65 years. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Veterinary Biologicals Research Institute, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and Ella Foundation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016

Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine formulations.


Babra C.,Curtin University Australia | Tiwari J.,Curtin University Australia | Costantino P.,Curtin University Australia | Sunagar R.,Ella Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Basic Microbiology | Year: 2014

The development of persistent antibiotic resistance by human methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains and substantial association with poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) in biofilms is reported in this investigation. Sixteen of 31 MSSA strains under study were found to have developed resistance to one or more antibiotics, with four strains, two of which did not produce biofilms, showing resistance to cefoxitin, undetectable by mecA amplification. Antibiotic resistance displayed by 13/14 biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates remained persistent for 4 weeks prior to reverting back to the original antibiotic susceptibility, prompting a suggestion of determining antibiograms for clinical S. aureus isolates subcultured from biofilms developed in vitro as well as planktonic subcultures prepared from the site of infection. While there was correlation of antibiotic resistance with biofilm formation confirming previous reports, this is the first time that persistence of the biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance by S. aureus as planktonic cells is reported. Among the two methods used for assessment of biofilm formation, the tissue culture plate (TCP) method revealed that almost all strains were strong or moderate biofilm producers whereas only 19/31 strains were biofilm producers using the Congo Red agar (CRA) method indicating the superiority of the TCP method in detecting biofilm producers. We also observed no association between biofilm formation and major capsule types. However, substantial, although not absolute, association of biofilm formation with PNAG was observed, warranting continued identification of additional surface-associated polysaccharide and/or protein antigens associated with biofilm formation for development of an effective vaccine against S. aureus infections regardless of capsular phenotype. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hegde N.R.,Ella Foundation
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2015

The traditional platform of using embryonated chicken eggs for the production of influenza vaccines has several drawbacks including the inability to meet the volume of required doses in the case of widespread epidemics and pandemics. Cell culture platforms have therefore been explored in the last 2 decades, and have attracted further attention following the H1N1 pandemic outbreak. This platform, while not the most economical for large-scale production, has several advantages, and can supplement the vaccine requirement when needed. Recent developments in production technologies have contributed greatly to finetuning this platform. In combination with other technologies such as live attenuated and recombinant protein or virus-like particle vaccines, and different adjuvants and delivery systems, cell culture-based influenza vaccine platform can be used both for production of seasonal vaccine, and to mitigate vaccine shortages in pandemic situations. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Hegde N.R.,Ella Foundation | Kumar D.,Ella Foundation | Rao P.P.,Ella Foundation | Kumari P.K.,Bharat Biotech International Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Several limitations of the use of embryonated eggs and the threat of pandemics have highlighted the need for other platforms for the production of influenza vaccines. We report the indigenous development and pre-clinical testing of an MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine HNVAC from India. The cell bank and virus seed were characterized extensively. The cells were characterized by PCR, electron microscopy, and karyotyping, and found to be of female canine epithelial origin. The virus was confirmed by neutralization, haemagglutination inhibition, neuraminidase inhibition, and PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Adventitious agent testing was performed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro studies included culturing, haemadsorption, haemagglutination, PCR and RT-PCR, whereas in vivo studies included passage in embryonated eggs and in laboratory animals. Both cell bank and virus seed were free of adventitious agents. MDCK cell lysates as well as cellular DNA did not produce tumours in newborn or adult laboratory animals. The bioprocess parameters were standardized to recover antigen with minimal levels of process-related impurities. The vaccine bulk was tested for the presence of specific antigen, and quantified by single radial immunodiffusion. Finally, non-adjuvanted and aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccine formulations were found to be safe in preclinical toxicity studies in mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits, and immunogenic in mice and rabbits. This is the first and only cell culture-based influenza vaccine platform developed in any developing country. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Hyderabad, Ella Foundation and Veterinary Biologicals and Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016

Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne viral disease mostly of sheep. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a segmented double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Orbivirus of family Reoviridae and is transmitted by midges belonging to Culicoides spp. The disease is endemic in the tropics and subtropics, and the incidence is high in southern India. Twenty-six serotypes of BTV have been reported worldwide. Although most of the serotypes have been reported in India, information regarding currently circulating serotypes is essential to develop control programs. Both serological assays and nucleic acid-based assays have been used for typing BTV. Segment 2, which codes for the outer capsid protein VP2, is the target for PCR-based typing; however, the VP2 sequence diversity among viruses belonging to the same serotype but isolated from different geographical areas makes it essential to develop geographical based reagents. In this study, reverse transcription PCR was developed based on sequences of Indian isolates of BTV (serotypes 1, 2, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21 and 23), and this was applied to type 52 isolates obtained during the last decade. It was found that multiple serotypes circulate, with involvement of more than one serotype infecting individual animals and herds over a period in a given area. Detection of circulating serotypes and estimation of herd immunity against different serotypes of BTV may provide important information for predicting the distribution of these serotypes and inclusion of serotypes in vaccines.

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