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Brunelli A.,St Jamess Hospital | Falcoz P.E.,University of Strasbourg | D'amico T.,Duke University | Hansen H.,Copenhagen University | And 26 more authors.
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To update the recommendations for the structural characteristics of general thoracic surgery (GTS) in Europe in order to provide a document that can be used as a guide for harmonizing the general thoracic surgical practice in Europe. METHODS: A task force was created to set the structural, procedural and qualification characteristics of a European GTS unit. These criteria were endorsed by the Executive Committee of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons and by the Thoracic Domain of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and were validated by the European Board of Thoracic Surgery at European Union of Medical Specialists. RESULTS: Criteria regarding definition and scope of GTS, structure and qualification of GTS unit, training and education and recommendations for subjects of particular interest (lung transplant, oesophageal surgery, minimally invasive thoracic surgery, quality surveillance) were developed. CONCLUSIONS: This document will hopefully represent the first step of a process of revision of the modern thoracic surgeons' curricula, which need to be qualitatively rethought in the setting of the qualification process. The structural criteria highlighted in the present document are meant to help and tackle the challenge of cultural and language barriers as well as of widely varying national training programmes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. Source

Leschber G.,ELK Berlin Chest Hospital
Thoracic Surgery Clinics | Year: 2014

Complications in tracheal surgery are not uncommon but generally do not influence the final result. Most patients benefit from tracheal resections and mortality is low. Risk factors for complications are reoperations, preoperative tracheostomy, and lengthy resections. Precise information about the extent of the diseased tracheal part as well as thorough planning of the operative procedure, meticulous dissection, and knowledge of release maneuvers by an experienced thoracic surgeon will diminish the risk of adverse effects. Granuloma formation is the most common event observed postoperatively, whereas dehiscence and restenosis or the potentially fatal bleeding from a tracheo-innominate artery fistula occurs less frequently. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Schneider K.U.,University of Heidelberg | Dietrich D.,Epigenomics AG | Fleischhacker M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Leschber G.,ELK Berlin Chest Hospital | And 11 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: DNA methylation in the SHOX2 locus was previously used to reliably detect lung cancer in a group of critical controls, including 'cytologically negative' samples with no visible tumor cell content, at a high specificity based on the analysis of bronchial lavage samples. This study aimed to investigate, if the methylation correlates with SHOX2 gene expression and/or copy number alterations. An amplification of the SHOX2 gene locus together with the observed tumor-specific hypermethylation might explain the good performance of this marker in bronchial lavage samples.Methods: SHOX2 expression, gene copy number and DNA methylation were determined in lung tumor tissues and matched morphologically normal adjacent tissues (NAT) from 55 lung cancer patients. Quantitative HeavyMethyl (HM) real-time PCR was used to detect SHOX2 DNA methylation levels. SHOX2 expression was assayed with quantitative real-time PCR, and copy numbers alterations were measured with conventional real-time PCR and array CGH.Results: A hypermethylation of the SHOX2 locus in tumor tissue as compared to the matched NAT from the same patient was detected in 96% of tumors from a group of 55 lung cancer patients. This correlated highly significantly with the frequent occurrence of copy number amplification (p < 0.0001), while the expression of the SHOX2 gene showed no difference.Conclusions: Frequent gene amplification correlated with hypermethylation of the SHOX2 gene locus. This concerted effect qualifies SHOX2 DNA methylation as a biomarker for lung cancer diagnosis, especially when sensitive detection is needed, i.e. in bronchial lavage or blood samples. © 2011 Schneider et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Yan T.D.,The Collaborative Research CORE Group | Yan T.D.,University of Sydney | Cao C.,The Collaborative Research CORE Group | D'amico T.A.,Duke University | And 52 more authors.
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has been gradually accepted as an alternative surgical approach to open thoracotomy for selected patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) over the past 20 years. The aim of this project was to standardize the perioperative management of VATS lobectomy patients through expert consensus and to provide insightful guidance to clinical practice. METHODS: A panel of 55 experts on VATS lobectomy was identified by the Scientific Secretariat and the International Scientific Committee of the '20th Anniversary of VATS Lobectomy Conference-The Consensus Meeting'. The Delphi methodology consisting of two rounds of voting was implemented to facilitate the development of consensus. Results from the second-round voting formed the basis of the current Consensus Statement. Consensus was defined a priori as more than 50% agreement among the panel of experts. Clinical practice was deemed 'recommended' if 50-74% of the experts reached agreement and 'highly recommended' if 75% or more of the experts reached agreement. RESULTS: Fifty VATS lobectomy experts (91%) from 16 countries completed both rounds of standardized questionnaires. No statistically significant differences in the responses between the two rounds of questioning were identified. Consensus was reached on 21 controversial points, outlining the current accepted definition of VATS lobectomy, its indications and contraindications, perioperative clinical management and recommendations for training and future research directions. CONCLUSION: The present Consensus Statement represents a collective agreement among 50 international experts to establish a standardized practice of VATS lobectomy for the thoracic surgical community after 20 years of clinical experience. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. Source

Merk J.,ELK Berlin Chest Hospital | Rolff J.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | Dorn C.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | Leschber G.,ELK Berlin Chest Hospital | Fichtner I.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2011

Objective: In chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), some patients seem to exhibit an intrinsic resistance or develop an acquired resistance under treatment. Results on resistance markers for possible treatment failure as shown in studies on selected lung cancer cell lines could not be completely confirmed in clinical trials. As these conflicting data require further research, we created a model between cell culture and the clinical need to study this problem. Methods: Our study was based on patient-derived NSCLC xenografts in a mouse model, which revealed a high coincidence with the original tumour. Protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of known resistance markers (breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR), lung cancer-related protein (LRP) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1)) were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoblotting in 24 xenografts. Chemosensitivity to etoposide, carboplatin, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, cetuximab and erlotinib was determined in in vivo xenograft experiments and compared with the protein and mRNA expression of the multidrug resistance markers. Results: With the exception of a single correlation between chemosensitivity and mRNA expression of etoposide and bcrp (mRNA expression of BCRP), we found no significant correlation between the response rates and protein- and mRNA expression levels in our 24 xenografts. The present results indicate that in vivo expression levels of multidrug resistance proteins and their mRNAs may not play a comparable role in chemoresistance of NSCLC, as pointed out in selected tumour cell lines. Conclusions: Patient-derived xenografts allow detailed investigation of therapy-related markers and their dynamic regulation in a well-standardised and clinically related way. As a consequence of our investigations, we regard multidrug resistance to be a multifactorial phenomenon, in which more factors than the markers analysed by the present study may be involved. © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Source

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