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Huang B.,Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services | Firth C.,CSIRO | Watterson D.,University of Queensland | Allcock R.,University of Western Australia | And 9 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

To better understand the diversity of bunyaviruses and their circulation in Australia, we sequenced 5 viruses (Gan Gan, Trubanaman, Kowanyama, Yacaaba, and Taggert) isolated and serologically identified 4 decades ago as members of the family Bunyaviridae. Gan Gan and Trubanaman viruses almost perfectly matched 2 recently isolated, purportedly novel viruses, Salt Ash and Murrumbidgee viruses, respectively. Kowanyama and Yacaaba viruses were identified as being related to members of a large clade containing pathogenic viruses. Taggert virus was confirmed as being a nairovirus; several viruses of this genus are pathogenic to humans. The genetic relationships and historical experimental infections in mice reveal the potential for these viruses to lead to disease emergence. © 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

Kirkland R.D.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2015

Akabane virus is a Culicoides-bome orthobunyavirus that is teratogenic to the fetus of cattle and small ruminant species. Depending upon the stage of gestation at which infection occurs, and the length of gestation of the mammalian host, a range of congenital defects may be observed. The developing central nervous system is usually the most severely affected, with hydranencephaly and arthrogryposis most frequently observed. Less commonly, some strains of Akabane virus can cause encephalitis in the neonate or, rarely, adult cattle. Akabane viruses are known to be widespread in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Southeast Asia, the Middle Eastand some African countries. Disease is infrequently observed in regions where this virus is endemic and the presence of the virus remains unrecognised in the absence of serological surveillance. In some Asian countries, vaccines are used to minimise the occurrence of disease.

Watson J.,Australian Animal Health Laboratory | Daniels P.,Australian Animal Health Laboratory | Kirkland P.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute | Carroll A.,Khan Research Laboratories | Jeggo M.,Australian Animal Health Laboratory
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

In August 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of equine influenza. The disease occurred first in a quarantine station for imported horses near Sydney and subsequently escaped into the general horse population. After an extensive campaign the disease was eradicated and Australia is again recognised as free of this disease. Equine influenza was then, and is now, recognised to be the major disease risk associated with live horse imports into Australia and measures designed to mitigate this risk formed the basis of the quarantine protocols then in place. Subsequent investigations into the cause of the outbreak identified failures in compliance with these quarantine requirements as a contributing factor. It is also likely that the immunity of horses vaccinated as part of the import protocol was less than optimal, and that this had a significant role to play in the escape of the disease from quarantine.

Hansbro P.M.,University of Newcastle | Warner S.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Tracey J.P.,Orange Agricultural Institute | Arzey K.E.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute | And 9 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

We investigated carriage of avian influenza viruses by wild birds in Australia, 2005-2008, to assess the risks to poultry industries and human health. We collected 21,858 (7,357 cloacal, 14,501 fecal) samples and detected 300 viruses, representing a detection rate of ≈1.4%. Rates were highest in autumn (March-May) and differed substantially between bird types, areas, and years. We typed 107 avian influenza viruses and identified 19 H5, 8 H7, and 16 H9 (40% of typed viruses). All were of low pathogenicity. These viruses formed clearly different phylogenetic clades to lineages from Eurasia or North America, suggesting the potential existence of Australian lineages. H7 viruses were similar to highly pathogenic H7 strains that caused outbreaks in poultry in Australia. Several periods of increased detection rates (numbers or subtypes of viruses) were identified. This study demonstrates the need for ongoing surveillance to detect emerging pathogenic strains and facilitate prevention of outbreaks.

Kirkland P.D.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute | Gabor M.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute | Poe I.,North Coast Local Lands Services | Neale K.,Macksville Veterinary Clinic | And 8 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

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