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Carnegie A.J.,Biosecurity Research | Cooper K.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

In April 2010, an exotic rust of Myrtaceae was detected in New South Wales, Australia, identified as Uredo rangelii and provided a new common name, 'myrtle rust'. It was declared an Exotic Plant Pest as it was recognised as a taxon within the Puccinia psidii (eucalyptus/guava rust) complex, which is a key biosecurity threat to Australia. This paper describes the emergency response that ensued, including surveillance, tracing, quarantine, destruction and community engagement. A unique aspect of this emergency response was the disjointed stages of action, with the response initially falling under national emergency management procedures (PLANTPLAN) for 1 week (Stage I), then outside the national process and under the state process for a further 2 months (Stage II), before falling again under the national emergency response program (Stage III). Problems associated with the identity of the introduced rust are discussed, and a brief update on the current status of the rust, now established in Australia, is provided, including distribution and impact in the native environment and affected industries. Major outcomes of recent reviews of the emergency response are outlined. © Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2011. Source


Neal J.S.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute | Neal J.S.,University of Sydney | Fulkerson W.J.,University of Sydney | Hacker R.B.,Trangie Agricultural Research Center
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

The increasing cost and scarcity of water for irrigation is placing pressure on Australian dairy farmers to utilize water more efficiently, and as result, water use efficiency (WUE) of forages is becoming an important criterion for sustainable dairy production. This study was conducted to identify more water use efficient forage species than the dominant dairy forage, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Seventeen annual forage species were investigated under optimum irrigation (I1) and two deficit irrigation treatments (nominally 66 and 33% of irrigation water applied to the optimal level), over 3 years at Camden, NSW, on a brown Dermsol in a warm temperate climate. Forages with the highest yield generally had the highest WUEt (total yield/evapotranspiration). Under optimal irrigation, there was a three-fold difference in mean annual WUEt between forages, with maize (Zea mays L.) having the highest (42.9kgha-1mm-1) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) the lowest (13.5kgha-1mm-1), with 11 of the forage species having a greater WUEt than perennial ryegrass. The 'harvested' forages maize, wheat, triticale (Triticosecale rimpaui Wittm.) and maple pea (Pisum sativium L.) generally had higher mean WUEt (26.7-42.9kgha-1mm-1) than the remaining forages which were defoliated multiple times to simulate grazing (13.5-30.1kgha-1mm-1). The reduction in annual WUEt in response to deficit irrigation was greatest for the warm season forages with up to 30% reduction for maize, while most of the cool season annuals were not significantly affected by deficit irrigation at the levels imposed. In order to maximize WUEt of any forage, it is necessary to maximize yield, as there is a strong positive relationship between yield and WUEt. However, while WUEt is an important criterion for choosing dairy forages, it is only one factor in a complex system. Choice of forages must be considered on a whole farm basis and include consideration of yield, nutritive value, cost of production and risk. © 2010. Source


Neal J.S.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute | Neal J.S.,University of Sydney | Fulkerson W.J.,University of Sydney | Sutton B.G.,University of Sydney
Irrigation Science | Year: 2011

The cost and scarcity of water is placing increasing pressure on Australian dairy farmers to utilise water for forage production as efficiently as possible. This study aimed to identify perennial forage species with greater water-use efficiency (WUE) than the current dominant species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Fifteen perennial forage species were investigated under optimum irrigation and two deficit irrigation treatments, over three years at Camden, NSW, on a brown Dermsol in a warm temperate climate. Under optimal irrigation, there was a nearly twofold difference in mean WUEt (total yield/evapotranspiration) between forages, with kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex. chiov.) having the highest (27.3 kg ha-1 mm-1) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotuscorniculatus L.) the lowest (14.8 kg ha-1 mm-1). Kikuyu was also the most water use efficient forage under the extreme deficit irrigation treatment, although its mean WUEt declined by 15% to 23.2 kg ha-1 mm-1, while white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in the same treatment had the largest decline of 44% and the lowest WUEt of only 8.8 kg ha-1 mm-1. In order to maximise WUE for any forage, it is necessary to maximise yield, as there is a strong positive relationship between yield and WUEt. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Mohler V.L.,University of Sydney | Heithoff D.M.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Mahan M.J.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Hornitzky M.A.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Intensive livestock production is associated with an increased incidence of salmonellosis. The risk of infection and the subsequent public health concern is attributed to increased pathogen exposure and disease susceptibility due to multiple stressors experienced by livestock from farm to feedlot. Traditional parenteral vaccine methods can further stress susceptible populations and cause carcass damage, adverse reactions, and resultant increased production costs. As a potential means to address these issues, in-water delivery of live attenuated vaccines affords a low cost, low-stress method for immunization of livestock populations that is not associated with the adverse handling stressors and injection reactions associated with parenteral administration. We have previously established that in-water administration of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium dam vaccine conferred significant protection in livestock. While these experimental trials hold significant promise, the ultimate measure of the vaccine will not be established until it has undergone clinical testing in the field wherein environmental and sanitary conditions are variable. Here we show that in-water administration of a S. Typhimurium dam attenuated vaccine was safe, stable, and well-tolerated in adult sheep. The dam vaccine did not alter water consumption or vaccine dosing; remained viable under a wide range of temperatures (21-37°C); did not proliferate within fecal-contaminated trough water; and was associated with minimal fecal shedding and clinical disease as a consequence of vaccination. The capacity of Salmonella dam attenuated vaccines to be delivered in drinking water to protect livestock from virulent Salmonella challenge offers an effective, economical, stressor-free Salmonella prophylaxis for intensive livestock production systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mo M.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Mo M.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute
Herpetology Notes | Year: 2015

Little is known about the behaviour of many of Australia’s amphibians. In this paper, I report a series of incidental observations documenting “blitz-feeding” on ants and other arthropods by Ornate Burrowing Frogs (Platyplectrum ornatum) in the Pilliga forests and Bundarra, northern New South Wales, Australia. During these observations, frogs appeared to be strategically positioned on ant trails, crossing paths with 5–15 ants per minute. Frogs appeared to use their bodies to direct incoming ants towards their head. Blitz attacks were rapid, involving a volatile downward burst of the tongue. Similar behaviour has been confirmed in some Australian insectivorous lizards. © 2015, Societas Europaea Herpetologica. All rights reserved. Source

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