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Wilson C.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Wright P.F.,Dartmouth College | Safrit J.T.,Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation | Rudy B.,New York University
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010

Adolescents and youth aged 15-24 are one of the populations most impacted by the global HIV epidemic with an estimated 50% of new infections occurring in this age group. They are thus one of the prime populations for targeting behavioral and biomedical preventions. However, the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in youth vary widely by geographic region and risk behavior profiles. There are also biological and neurodevelopmental considerations that must be considered in the development, testing, and ultimate dissemination of HIV prevention interventions. These concepts are broadly discussed here. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ong'ech J.O.,University of Nairobi | Hoffman H.J.,George Washington University | Kose J.,Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation | Audo M.,Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Objective: Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV programs require follow-up of HIV-exposed infants (HEI) for infant feeding support, prophylactic medicines, and HIV diagnosis for at least 18 months. Retention in care and receipt of HIV services are challenging in resource-limited settings. This study compared infant follow-up results when HEI services were provided within Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics or in specialized HIV Comprehensive Care Clinics (CCCs) in Kenya. Methods: This observational prospective cohort study enrolled HEI at 6-8 weeks of age in 2 purposively selected hospitals with similar characteristics but different models of service delivery. In the CCC model, HEI received immunization and growth monitoring in MCH but cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and infant HIV testing in the CCC. In the MCH model, all services were provided in the MCH. Data were collected at enrollment, 14 weeks, and 6, 9, and 12 months. Results: From April 2008 to April 2009, 184 HEI were enrolled in the CCC cohort and 179 in the MCH cohort. Infants in MCH were 1.14, 1.42, 1.95, and 1.29 times more likely to attend 14-week, 6-, 9-, and 12-month postnatal visits, respectively, and 2.24 times (95% confidence interval: 1.57 to 3.18) more likely to attend all 4 visits. Although infants in MCH were 1.33 times (95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 1.62) more likely to have HIV antibody testing at 1 year than CCC, there were no differences for polymerase chain reaction test or cotrimoxazole initiation at 6-8 weeks. Conclusions: HIV services integrated in MCH yield better follow-up of HEI than CCC. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ghanotakis E.,Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation | Peacock D.,A+ Network | Wilcher R.,FHI 360
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2012

Issues: The recently launched ''Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive'' sets forth ambitious targets that will require more widespread implementation of comprehensive prevention of vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes. As PMTCT policymakers and implementers work toward these new goals, increased attention must be paid to the role that gender inequality plays in limiting PMTCT programmatic progress. Description: A growing body of evidence suggests that gender inequality, including gender-based violence, is a key obstacle to better outcomes related to all four components of a comprehensive PMTCT programme. Gender inequality affects the ability of women and girls to protect themselves from HIV, prevent unintended pregnancies and access and continue to use HIV prevention, care and treatment services. Lessons Learned: In light of this evidence, global health donors and international bodies increasingly recognize that it is critical to address the gender disparities that put women and children at increased risk of HIV and impede their access to care. The current policy environment provides unprecedented opportunities for PMTCT implementers to integrate efforts to address gender inequality with efforts to expand access to clinical interventions for preventing vertical HIV transmission. Effective community- and facility-based strategies to transform harmful gender norms and mitigate the impacts of gender inequality on HIV-related outcomes are emerging. PMTCT programmes must embrace these strategies and expand beyond the traditional focus of delivering ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women living with HIV. Without greater implementation of comprehensive, gender transformative PMTCT programmes, elimination of vertical transmission of HIV will remain elusive. Copyright: © 2012 Ghanotakis E et al; licensee International AIDS Society.

Gloyd S.,University of Washington | Wagenaar B.H.,University of Washington | Woelk G.B.,Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation | Kalibala S.,HIVCore Population Council
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2016

Introduction: HIV programme data from routine health information systems (RHIS) and personal health information (PHI) provide ample opportunities for secondary data analysis. However, these data pose unique opportunities and challenges for use in health system monitoring, along with process and impact evaluations. Methods: Analyses focused on retrospective case reviews of four of the HIV-related studies published in this JIAS supplement. We identify specific opportunities and challenges with respect to the secondary analysis of RHIS and PHI data. Results: Challenges working with both HIV-related RHIS and PHI included missing, inconsistent and implausible data; rapidly changing indicators; systematic differences in the utilization of services; and patient linkages over time and different data sources. Specific challenges among RHIS data included numerous registries and indicators, inconsistent data entry, gaps in data transmission, duplicate registry of information, numerator-denominator incompatibility and infrequent use of data for decision-making. Challenges specific to PHI included the time burden for busy providers, the culture of lax charting, overflowing archives for paper charts and infrequent chart review. Conclusions: Many of the challenges that undermine effective use of RHIS and PHI data for analyses are related to the processes and context of collecting the data, excessive data requirements, lack of knowledge of the purpose of data and the limited use of data among those generating the data. Recommendations include simplifying data sources, analysis and reporting; conducting systematic data quality audits; enhancing the use of data for decision-making; promoting routine chart review linked with simple patient tracking systems; and encouraging open access to RHIS and PHI data for increased use. Copyright: © 2016 Gloyd S et al.

Grundmann N.,Stanford University | Iliff P.,ZVITAMBO Project | Stringer J.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia | Wilfert C.,Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2011

Objective To develop a new algorithm for the presumptive diagnosis of severe disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children less than 18 months of age for the purpose of identifying children who require antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A conditional probability model was constructed and non-virologic parameters in various combinations were tested in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 children aged 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of these algorithms for identifying children in need of ART. The modelled parameters consisted of clinical criteria, rapid HIV antibody testing and CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) count. Findings In children younger than 18 months, the best-performing screening algorithm, consisting of clinical symptoms plus antibody testing plus CD4 count, showed a sensitivity ranging from 71% to 80% and a specificity ranging from 92% to 99%. Positive and negative predictive values were between 61% and 97% and between 95% and 96%, respectively. In the absence of virologic tests, this alternate algorithm for the presumptive diagnosis of severe HIV disease makes it possible to correctly initiate ART in 91% to 98% of HIV-positive children who are at highest risk of dying. Conclusion The algorithms presented in this paper have better sensitivity and specificity than clinical parameters, with or without rapid HIV testing, for the presumptive diagnosis of severe disease in HIV-positive children less than 18 months of age. If implemented, they can increase the number of HIV-positive children successfully initiated on ART.

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