News Article | February 21, 2017
NOT FOR RELEASE, PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN OR INTO THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, JAPAN, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA OR HONG KONG OR IN ANY OTHER JURISDICTION IN WHICH THE TENDER OFFER WOULD BE PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW. Statement of the Board of Directors of Comptel Corporation regarding the voluntary public tender offer by Nokia Nokia Corporation (“Nokia”) and Comptel Corporation (“Comptel” of the “Company”) have announced on February 9, 2017 that Nokia through its wholly owned indirect subsidiary Nokia Solutions and Networks Oy (the “Offeror”), makes a voluntary public cash tender offer to purchase all of the issued and outstanding shares and option rights in Comptel that are not owned by Comptel or any of its subsidiaries (the “Tender Offer”). The Board of Directors of Comptel has on February 21, 2017 decided to issue the below statement regarding the Tender Offer as required by the Finnish Securities Markets Act (746/2012, as amended). Nokia and Comptel have on February 8, 2017 entered into a transaction agreement (the “Transaction Agreement”) setting out, among others, the terms and conditions pursuant to which the Tender Offer shall be made by Nokia through the Offeror. The Tender Offer will be made in accordance with the terms and conditions of the tender offer document expected to be published by the Offeror on or about February 24, 2017 (the “Tender Offer Document”). The offer price is EUR 3.04 in cash for each share in Comptel. The share offer price represents a premium of: 28.8 percent compared to the closing price of the shares on Nasdaq Helsinki Ltd. (“Nasdaq Helsinki”) on February 8, 2017, the last trading day before the announcement of the Tender Offer; and 51.2 percent compared to the volume-weighted average trading price of the Comptel shares on Nasdaq Helsinki during the 12-month period preceding the date of the announcement of the Tender Offer. The price offered for each option right granted under Comptel’s share option schemes 2014 and 2015 and validly tendered in the Tender Offer will be EUR 2.56 in cash for each 2014A option right, EUR 2.16 in cash for each 2014B option right, EUR 1.53 in cash for each 2014C option right, EUR 2.15 in cash for each 2015A option right and EUR 2.15 in cash for each 2015B option right. Any distribution of dividend or other assets by Comptel after the date of the Transaction Agreement shall reduce the Share Offer Price by an amount equal to such dividend or distribution per share. Such distribution shall not affect the offer price for the Comptel option rights. The offer period under the Tender Offer is expected to commence on or about February 27, 2017 and to run for approximately four (4) weeks. The Offeror reserves the right to extend the offer period from time to time in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Tender Offer. Pursuant to the Transaction Agreement, the Offeror is to acquire all issued and outstanding shares and all issued and outstanding option rights in Comptel. The Tender Offer will be financed through Nokia group’s internal financing arrangements and no third party financing is required by the Offeror to complete the Tender Offer. The Tender Offer is thus not conditional upon obtaining any financing for the Tender Offer. The following major shareholders of Comptel have irrevocably undertaken to accept the Tender Offer subject to certain customary conditions: Mandatum Life Insurance Company Limited, Elisa Corporation, Kaleva Mutual Insurance Company, Varma Mutual Pension Insurance Company and Ilmarinen Mutual Pension Insurance Company as well as the members of the Comptel Board of Directors and the President and CEO of Comptel (personally and through an entity in his control), representing jointly approximately 48.3 percent of the shares and votes in Comptel. The Tender Offer is subject to, among others, approvals by the relevant regulatory authorities, such as competition authorities, and the Offeror gaining control of more than 90 percent of the outstanding Comptel shares on a fully diluted basis. STATEMENT OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS Pursuant to the Finnish Securities Market Act, the Board of Directors of Comptel shall prepare a public statement regarding the Tender Offer. The statement shall include a well-founded assessment of the Tender Offer from the perspective of Comptel and its shareholders as well as of the strategic plans and their likely effects on the operations and employment of Comptel presented by the Offeror in the Tender Offer Document. For the purposes of issuing this statement, the Offeror has submitted to the Board of Directors of Comptel the draft version of the Finnish language Tender Offer Document in the form in which the Offeror has filed it with the Finnish Financial Supervisory Authority for approval on February 16, 2017. In preparing its statement, the Board of Directors of Comptel has relied on information provided in the Offeror’s announcement regarding the Tender Offer published on February 9, 2017 and the draft Tender Offer Document by the Offeror and has not independently verified this information. Accordingly, the Board of Directors’ assessments of the consequences of the Tender Offer on Comptel’s business and employees should be treated with caution. 2. Assessment regarding strategic plans presented by the Offeror and their likely effects on the operations and employment of Comptel Information given by the Offeror in the Tender Offer Document The Board of Directors of Comptel has assessed the Offeror’s strategic plans based on the statements in Offeror’s announcement regarding the Tender Offer published on February 9, 2017 and the draft Tender Offer Document. Based on information provided by Nokia, it is the intention of Nokia and the Offeror that Comptel will continue to operate as a separate unit, but its businesses might be eventually harmonized with and/or integrated into the standalone software business operated by Applications & Analytics business group of Nokia group based upon an integration plan to be developed by the management of Nokia. Further, Nokia has presented that certain employees and members of senior management of Comptel will play an important role in Nokia’s organization following the completion of the Tender Offer. Nokia has set forth that in order to encourage these key employees of Comptel to remain in the Company, the Offeror intends to offer them certain retention arrangements following the completion of the Tender Offer. The Offeror, however, intends, based on information provided by Nokia, to change the composition of the Board of Directors of Comptel after the completion of the Tender Offer. According to Nokia, the planned acquisition is part of Nokia’s strategy to build a standalone software business at scale by expanding and strengthening its software portfolio and go-to-market capabilities with additional sales capacity and a strategic partner network. Comptel would bolster Nokia’s software portfolio by adding critical solutions for catalogue-driven service orchestration and fulfillment, intelligent data processing, customer engagement, and agile service monetization. The combination of Nokia’s Service Assurance portfolio and Comptel’s Service Orchestration portfolio would enable a dynamic closed loop between service assurance and fulfillment that simplifies management of complex heterogeneous networks. When combined with Nokia’s Cloudband(TM) and Nuage(TM) portfolios, Nokia would be able to provide customers with complete, end-to-end orchestration of complex Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networking (SDN) deployments. In November 2016, Nokia announced its long-term strategy, Rebalancing for Growth. As part of the strategy, Nokia is strengthening its software capabilities in key areas: portfolio, services and go-to-market. The planned acquisition of Comptel would bolster go-to-market efforts with a software-dedicated sales force and strong partner network. It would also support Nokia’s desire to build a portfolio that allows customers to automate as much of their network and business operations as possible – including customer services, self-optimization, management and orchestration. Comptel would help with this objective by bringing catalogue-driven fulfilment and digital service lifecycle management, complex event processing, applications for customer engagement and service monetization; and emerging technologies for context-aware on-device commerce and IoT pattern detection. The Tender Offer is not expected to have a material effect on the operations and business locations of, or on the number of jobs at Comptel. The Board of Directors of Comptel believes that Nokia’s global reach, strength of brand, and cross-selling opportunities will benefit the activities of Comptel. Comptel will also gain entry to new markets in which Nokia already has a strong presence, especially the United States. The greater size and financial strength of Nokia could also enhance Comptel’s position with respect to its existing and potential customers. Combining Comptel’s business with Nokia’s will offer the customers of both Comptel and Nokia a wider and more innovative software portfolio which could improve the competitiveness of the combined business unit especially in the eyes of larger customers. The Board of Directors of Comptel believes that the combination will also deepen the network know-how of the combined entity. The Board of Directors of Comptel believes that the combination creates an agile player in the OSS market and forms a foundation for profitable growth and innovation. Combining Comptel’s business with a large and recognized player such as Nokia, Comptel’s long-time partner, will also reduce risks related to Comptel’s current business, which result from the consolidation between the market players in Comptel’s sector and potential failures in the development or launch of new product areas, among others. In addition to these benefits to Comptel and its customers, the combination of Comptel’s business with Nokia will also create opportunities for personal and professional development for the employees of Comptel. The Board of Directors of Comptel considers that the information on the Offeror’s strategic plans concerning Comptel included in the announcement regarding the Tender Offer published on February 9, 2017 and in the draft Tender Offer Document is of a general nature. However, based on information presented to Comptel and its Board of Directors, the Board of Directors of Comptel evaluates that the completion of the Tender Offer is not expected to have any material effect on Comptel’s operations and business locations or on the number of jobs at Comptel. On the date of this statement the Board of Directors of Comptel has not received any formal statement as to the effects of the Tender Offer to the employments at Comptel from Comptel's employees. 3. Assessment of the Board of Directors from the perspective of Comptel and its shareholders and holders of option rights In evaluating the Tender Offer, analyzing alternative opportunities available to Comptel and concluding on its statement, the Board of Directors has considered several factors, such as Comptel’s recent financial performance, current position and future prospects, and the historical trading price of Comptel’s share. The Board of Directors’ assessment of continuing the business operations of Comptel as an independent company has been based on reasonable future-oriented estimates which include uncertainties, whereas the offer consideration and the premium included therein is not subject to any uncertainty other than the fulfillment of the conditions to completion of the Tender Offer. In order to support its assessment of the Tender Offer, the Board of Directors of Comptel has received a fairness opinion regarding the Tender Offer (the “Fairness Opinion”) from Comptel’s financial advisor, Sisu Partners. The Fairness Opinion, subject to the assumptions and qualifications set out therein and dated February 8, 2017, states that the offer consideration, from a financial point of view, is believed to be fair. The Fairness Opinion is attached as Appendix 1 to this statement. The Board of Directors of Comptel believes that the consideration offered by the Offeror to the shareholders and holders of option rights is fair to such holders based on an assessment of the issues and factors, which the Board of Directors has concluded to be material in evaluating the Tender Offer. These include, amongst other factors: The Board of Directors has concluded that the relevant business prospects of Comptel provide opportunities for Comptel to develop its business as an independent company for the benefit of Comptel and its shareholders and holders of option rights. However, taking into consideration the risks and uncertainties associated with such stand-alone approach as well as the terms and conditions of the draft Tender Offer Document, the Board of Directors has concluded that the Tender Offer is a more favorable alternative for the shareholders and holders of option rights. Comptel has in the Transaction Agreement agreed to a standard non-solicitation clause whereby Comptel has undertaken not to solicit competing proposals or, subject to the fiduciary duties of the Board of Directors of Comptel, promote the progress of such proposals. Having carefully assessed the terms and conditions of the Tender Offer, the Board of Directors of Comptel has concluded that entering into the Transaction Agreement, including said non-solicitation clause, is in the interest of Comptel’s shareholders and holders of option rights. 4. Recommendation of the Board of Directors The Board of Directors of Comptel has carefully assessed the Tender Offer and its terms and conditions based on the draft Tender Offer Document, the Fairness Opinion, and other available information. Based on the foregoing, the Board of Directors of Comptel deems that the Tender Offer and the amount of the offer consideration offered for the shares and option rights are under the prevailing circumstances fair to Comptel shareholders and holders of option rights. Given the above-presented viewpoints, the Board of Directors of Comptel unanimously recommends that the shareholders of Comptel and holders of option rights accept the Tender Offer. This statement is based on an assessment of the issues and factors which the Board of Directors has concluded to be material in evaluating the Tender Offer, including, but not limited to, the information and assumptions on the business operations and finances of Comptel at the date of this statement and their expected future development. All members of the Board of Directors have participated in the decision making concerning the statement. The evaluation of independence of the members of the Board of Directors is available on the website of Comptel. The Board of Directors of Comptel notes that combining the operations of Comptel with Nokia’s operations will, in addition to synergy benefits, pose challenges to both parties, and the combination may, as is common in such processes, involve unforeseeable risks. The Board of Directors of Comptel notes that the shareholders and holders of option rights of Comptel should also take into account the risks related to non-acceptance of the Tender Offer. If the Offeror waives the acceptance condition of 90 per cent of the shares and votes, the completion of the Tender Offer would reduce the number of Comptel shareholders and the number of shares, which would otherwise be publicly traded. Depending on the number of shares validly tendered in the Tender Offer, this could have an adverse effect on the liquidity and value of the shares. Pursuant to Chapter 18 of the Finnish Companies Act (624/2006, as amended), a shareholder with more than 90 per cent of all shares and votes in a company shall have the right to acquire, and subject to a demand by the other shareholders also be obligated to redeem, the shares owned by the other shareholders. The shares held by Comptel’s shareholders who have not accepted the Tender Offer may be redeemed through compulsory redemption proceedings under the Finnish Companies Act under the conditions set out therein. Comptel has undertaken to comply with the Helsinki Takeover Code referred to in Chapter 11 Section 28 of the Finnish Securities Markets Act. This statement of the Board of Directors of Comptel does not constitute investment or tax advice, and the Board of Directors of Comptel does not specifically evaluate herein the general price development or the risks relating to the shares in general. Shareholders and holders of option rights must independently decide whether to accept the Tender Offer, and they should take into account all relevant information available to them, including information presented in the Tender Offer Document and this statement as well as any other factors affecting the value of the shares. Comptel is being advised by Sisu Partners as financial advisor and Castrén & Snellman Attorneys Ltd. as legal advisor. THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF COMPTEL Life is digital moments. Comptel perfects these by transforming how you serve, meet and respond to the needs of “Generation Cloud” customers. Our solutions allow you to innovate rich communications services instantly, master the orchestration of service and order flows, capture data-in-motion and refine your decision-making. We apply intelligence to reduce friction in your business. Comptel has enabled the delivery of digital and communications services to more than 2 billion people. Every day, we care for more than 20% of all mobile usage data. Nearly 300 service providers across 90 countries have trusted us to perfect customers’ digital moments. NOT FOR RELEASE, PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN OR INTO THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, JAPAN, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA OR HONG KONG OR IN ANY OTHER JURISDICTION IN WHICH THE TENDER OFFER WOULD BE PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW. This stock exchange release contains statements that, to the extent they are not historical facts, constitute "forward looking statements''. Forward looking statements include statements concerning our plans, expectations, projections, objectives, targets, goals, strategies, future events, future revenues or performance, capital expenditures, financing needs, plans or intentions relating to acquisitions, our competitive strengths and weaknesses, plans or goals relating to financial position, future operations and development, our business strategy and the trends we anticipate in the industries and the political and legal environment in which we operate and other information that is not historical information. In some instances, they can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms "believes", "intends", "may", "will" or "should" or, in each case, their negative or variations on comparable terminology. By their very nature, forward looking statements involve inherent risks, uncertainties and assumptions, both general and specific, and risks exist that the predictions, forecasts, projections and other forward looking statements will not be achieved. Given these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward looking statements. Any forward looking statements contained herein speak only as at the date of this stock exchange release. THIS RELEASE MAY NOT BE RELEASED OR OTHERWISE DISTRIBUTED, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN OR INTO THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, JAPAN, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA OR HONG KONG OR IN ANY OTHER JURISDICTION IN WHICH THE TENDER OFFER WOULD BE PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW. THIS RELEASE IS NOT A TENDER OFFER DOCUMENT AND AS SUCH DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER OR INVITATION TO MAKE A SALES OFFER. IN PARTICULAR, THIS RELEASE IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL OR THE SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY ANY SECURITIES DESCRIBED HEREIN, AND IS NOT AN EXTENSION OF THE TENDER OFFER, IN THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, JAPAN, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA OR HONG KONG. INVESTORS SHALL ACCEPT THE TENDER OFFER FOR THE SHARES AND OPTION RIGHTS ONLY ON THE BASIS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN A TENDER OFFER DOCUMENT. OFFERS WILL NOT BE MADE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE EITHER AN OFFER OR PARTICIPATION THEREIN IS PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR WHERE ANY TENDER OFFER DOCUMENT OR REGISTRATION OR OTHER REQUIREMENTS WOULD APPLY IN ADDITION TO THOSE UNDERTAKEN IN FINLAND. THE TENDER OFFER IS NOT BEING MADE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW AND, WHEN PUBLISHED, THE TENDER OFFER DOCUMENT AND RELATED ACCEPTANCE FORMS WILL NOT AND MAY NOT BE DISTRIBUTED, FORWARDED OR TRANSMITTED INTO OR FROM ANY JURISDICTION WHERE PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW. IN PARTICULAR, THE TENDER OFFER IS NOT BEING MADE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN OR INTO, OR BY USE OF THE POSTAL SERVICE OF, OR BY ANY MEANS OR INSTRUMENTALITY (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION, TELEX, TELEPHONE OR THE INTERNET) OF INTERSTATE OR FOREIGN COMMERCE OF, OR ANY FACILITIES OF A NATIONAL SECURITIES EXCHANGE OF, THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, JAPAN, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA OR HONG KONG. THE TENDER OFFER CANNOT BE ACCEPTED, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, BY ANY SUCH USE, MEANS OR INSTRUMENTALITY OR FROM WITHIN THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, JAPAN, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA OR HONG KONG.
News Article | November 25, 2016
Elisa Corporation (ELISA) has received the following notice in accordance with Chapter 9, Section 5 of the Finnish Securities Market Act: According to the notification, the direct share ownership of Elisa Corporation shares owned by BlackRock, Inc. and its funds decreased on 24 November 2016 below five (5) per cent of Elisa Corporation’s entire stock. Total number of Elisa shares is 167,335,073 and each share carries one voting right. Total positions of BlackRock, Inc. and its funds subject to the notification: Notified details of the resulting situation on the date on which the threshold was crossed: B: Financial instruments according to SMA 9:6a:
Yunas S.,Tampere University of Technology |
Valkama M.,Tampere University of Technology |
Niemela J.,Elisa Corporation
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2015
To tackle the 1000× mobile data challenge, the research towards the 5th generation of mobile cellular networks is currently ongoing. One clear enabler toward substantially improved network area capacities is the increasing level of network densification at different layers of the overall heterogeneous radio access system. Ultra-dense deployments, or DenseNets, seek to take network densification to a whole new level, where extreme spatial reuse is deployed. This article looks into DenseNets from the perspectives of different deployment strategies, covering the densification of the classical macro layer, extremely dense indoor femto layer, as well as outdoor distributed antenna system (DAS), which can be dynamically configured as a single microcell or multiple independent microcells. Also, the potential of a new indoor-to-outdoor service provisioning paradigm is examined. The different deployment solutions are analyzed from the network area spectral and network energy efficiency perspectives, with extreme densification levels, including both indoor and outdoor use scenarios. The obtained results indicate that dedicated indoor solutions with densely deployed femtocells are much more spectrumand energy-efficient approaches to address the enormous indoor capacity demands compared to densifying the outdoor macro layer, when the systems are pushed to their capacity limits. Furthermore, the dynamic outdoor DAS concept offers an efficient and capacity-adaptive solution to provide outdoor capacity, on demand, in urban areas. © 2015 IEEE.
Yunas S.F.,Tampere University of Technology |
Valkama M.,Tampere University of Technology |
Niemela J.,Elisa Corporation
International Journal of Wireless Information Networks | Year: 2015
In order to support anywhere and anytime services of Beyond 4G networks, new deployment solutions will be required that can cost-effectively address the capacity demand of the future and also offer consistently high bit rates and decent quality of service throughout the network coverage area. In this article we look into an advanced outdoor distributed antenna system (DAS) concept, dynamic DAS, that offers on-demand outdoor capacity in urban areas by dynamically configuring the remote antenna units to either act as individual small cells or distributed nodes of a common central cell. The performance of the investigated DAS solution is evaluated and compared with legacy macrocellular deployment in a dense urban environment. Furthermore, the analysis covers the performance evaluation, mainly from an outdoor perspective. The obtained results indicate superior performance of dynamic DAS concept in terms of coverage and SINR, network capacity and cost-efficiency as compared to legacy macrocellular network deployments. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Yunas S.F.,Tampere University of Technology |
Valkama M.,Tampere University of Technology |
Niemela J.,Elisa Corporation
2014 16th International Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symposium, Networks 2014 | Year: 2014
Provisioning of high rate mobile data services and increased network level capacities in mobile cellular systems require higher received signal levels and improved interference characteristics throughout the cell coverage area. Traditional macrocellular deployments, due to high associated path losses, are only able to provide peak bit rates to users near the base stations. Moreover, the situation is further degraded in dense urban areas due to fading and shadowing effects. Hence, operators are forced to bring the antenna installations closer to the users in order to reduce the link losses and increase the service availability. As such, two competing technologies have been identified as alternative solutions for provisioning of high speed data in the outdoor environment, (i) small cells and (ii) outdoor distributed antenna systems (ODAS). In this article we evaluate and analyze the performance of small cells and outdoor DAS based deployments in a dense urban environment. The analysis covers the performance evaluation in both outdoor and indoor settings while taking into account two key performance metrics: Coverage and spectral efficiency. Furthermore, we study different deployment strategies for deploying the outdoor DAS network. Results indicate, that due to better interference management, ODAS deployments can provide improvements in outdoor cell level capacities, specifically cell edge capacity performance, as compared to stand-alone small cell deployments, however, due to comparatively lower frequency reuse factor than small cell scenario, the area capacity performance of ODAS is lower. For indoor receivers, the performance of all outdoor solutions are fairly low, mainly due to high associated building penetration loss. The findings strongly motivate the deployments towards heterogeneous network, where the indoor small cell solutions fulfill the exponentially increasing capacity demand of the indoor environment. For fulfilling the dynamic outdoor capacity demands, there is an inherent need of an advanced version of outdoor DAS solution that can dynamically configure the DAS nodes to act as a 'single super micro-/DAS cell' or multiple independent small microcells, based on the outdoor traffic conditions. © 2014 IEEE.
Yunas S.F.,Tampere University of Technology |
Niemela J.,Tampere University of Technology |
Niemela J.,Elisa Corporation |
Valkama M.,Tampere University of Technology |
Isotalo T.,Tampere University of Technology
Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN | Year: 2014
Network densification has been identified as one key enabling technology to address the 1000x mobile data challenge. This article analyzes network densification from the different deployment options perspective by looking into three mainstream technologies; Macrocells, Microcells, and Femtocells. The technologies are evaluated in a suburban neighborhood with modern residential houses. As majority of the data traffic in the network is believed to be generated by indoor users, we make a techno-economic analysis and comparison of the different deployment strategies from the indoor local area service provisioning viewpoint. Results show superior performance of low power indoor femtocell based deployment solutions in terms of coverage, capacity, energy and cost efficiency as compared to the outdoor solutions. Densifying the traditional pure Macro or Micro layers does provide improvement in the indoor coverage levels, however, due to the closer proximity of the co-channel interfering sites, the achievable capacity in the indoor environment deteriorates, which in turn also affects the energy and cost efficiency. These findings strongly motivate towards ultra dense deployments, based on indoor femtocell solutions, for addressing the local area capacity needs of the emerging future 5G networks. © 2014 IEEE.
Asp A.,Tampere University of Technology |
Yunas S.F.,Tampere University of Technology |
Kilpelainen V.,Tampere University of Technology |
Niemela J.,Elisa Corporation |
Valkama M.,Tampere University of Technology
European Wireless Conference 2016, EW 2016 | Year: 2016
Energy efficient building materials are these days being used to improve the thermal insulation and efficiency of modern buildings. However, such energy efficient building materials have been shown to block not only the unwanted heat radiation but also the outdoor radio signals penetrating into the buildings. Consequently, providing adequate coverage inside these modern buildings by using legacy outdoor deployment solutions, e.g. macrocells, is proving to be quite challenging. One solution to this problem is to deploy a dedicated indoor network, building on, e.g., indoor distributed antenna systems (DAS). However, a key problem in indoor DAS systems, supporting multiple operators, is the passive intermodulation (PIM), which has typically been considered to originate from loose connectors and damaged cables. However, it has been recently found out that the antenna environment can also play a significant role in generating PIM in multi-operator DAS systems. This paper examines the effects of antenna location in real apartment buildings through real PIM RF measurements. In particular, the aim is to find suitable guidelines for antenna placement/installation in cases where the DAS antenna has to located in a corridor, in the center of a building. We also evaluate the impact of measured PIM levels on the indoor network coverage and capacity in a realistic building setting through detailed ray tracing based analysis. Overall, the findings in this paper show that the coverage and capacity of DAS based indoor radio networks are very sensitive to the associated PIM mechanisms, and thus specific emphasis should be put on the location planning and optimization of the antenna units inside the buildings. © VDE Verlag GMBH, Berlin, Offenbach, Germany.
Holmstrom J.,Aalto University |
Ala-Risku T.,Aalto University |
Auramo J.,Tekes |
Collin J.,Elisa Corporation |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management | Year: 2010
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose demand-supply chain representation as a tool to support economic organizing between original equipment manufacturers going downstream and customers considering how to better outsource maintenance and asset management. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a presentation of a representation tool using a design theory template. Findings: The concept of demand visibility point and requirements penetration point can be used to describe different ways of economic organizing as interaction between demand and supply. The proposed representation scheme supports the identification of visibility-based changes in economic organization, such as vendor-managed inventory and reliability-based maintenance services. Research limitations/implications: The paper is conceptual and requires further empirical work. Practical implications: The representation tool can be used both by practitioners engaged in outsourcing maintenance and practitioners involved in the development of industrial service offerings. Originality/value: The paper introduces demand-supply chain representation to development of industrial service offerings and outsourcing of maintenance activities. © 2010 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Silvola R.,Elisa Corporation |
Jaaskelainen O.,University of Oulu |
Kropsu-Vehkapera H.,University of Oulu |
Haapasalo H.,University of Oulu
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2011
Purpose - This paper aims to provide a framework of the multidimensional concept of one master data. Preconditions required for successful one master data implementation and usage in large high-tech companies are presented and related current challenges companies have today are identified. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is qualitative in nature. First, literature was studied to find out the elements of one master data. Second, an interview study was carried out in eight high-tech companies and in three expert companies. Findings - One master data management framework is the composition of data, processes and information systems. Accordingly, the key challenges related to the data are that the definitions of master data are unclear and overall data quality is poor. Challenges on processes related to managing master data are inadequately defined data ownership, incoherent data management practices and lack of continuous data quality practices. Integrations between applications are fundamental challenge to tackle when constructing an holistic one master data. Research limitations/implications - Studied companies are vanguards in the area of master data management (MDM), providing good views on topical issues in large companies. This study offers a general view of the topic but not describes special company situations as companies need to adapt the presented concepts for their specific case. Significant implication for future research is that MDM can no more be classified and discussed as only an IT problem but it is a managerial challenge which requires structural changes on mindset how issues are handled. Practical implications - This paper provides a better understanding over the issues which are impacting on the implementation of one master data. The preconditions of implementing and executing one master data are: an organization wide and defined data model; clear data ownership definitions; pro-active data quality surveillance; data friendly company culture; the clear definitions of roles and responsibilities; organizational structure that supports data processes; clear data process definitions; support from the managerial level; and information systems that utilize the unified data model. The list of preconditions is wide and it also describes the incoherence of current understanding about MDM. This list helps business managers to understand the extent of the concept and to see that master data management is not only an IT issue. Originality/value - The existing practical research on master data management is limited and, for example, the general challenges have not been reported earlier. This paper offers practical research on one master data. The obtained results illustrates the extent of the topic and the fact that business relevant data management is not only an IT (application) issue but requires understanding of the data, its utilization in organization and supporting practices such as data ownership. Copyright © 2011 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.
Oulasvirta A.,Aalto University |
Lehtonen E.,Aalto University |
Kurvinen E.,Elisa Corporation |
Personal and Ubiquitous Computing | Year: 2010
Microblogging is a "Mobile Web 2.0" service category that enables brief blog-like postings from mobile terminals and PCs to the World Wide Web. To shed light on microblogging as a communication genre, we report on multiple analyses of data from the first 10 months of a service called Jaiku. The main finding is that microblogging centers on selective, I-centered disclosure of current activities and experiences, making daily experiences visible for others. The high frequency of brief and mundane status updates, like "working," may be a second-order effect resulting from posting becoming a routine executed to keep the audience interested. The results highlight the importance of reciprocal activity and feedback in users' motivation to invest in this activity. © 2009 Springer-Verlag London Limited.