Elgin, IL, United States
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A recent study hypothesized that avian-like wrist folding in quadrupedal dinosaurs could have aided their distinctive style of locomotion with semi-pronated and therefore medially facing palms. However, soft tissues that automatically guide avian wrist folding rarely fossilize, and automatic wrist folding of unknown function in extant crocodilians has not been used to test this hypothesis. Therefore, an investigation of the relative contributions of soft tissues to wrist range of motion (ROM) in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs, and the quadrupedal function of crocodilian wrist folding, could inform these questions. Here, we repeatedly measured wrist ROM in degrees through fully fleshed, skinned, minus muscles/tendons, minus ligaments, and skeletonized stages in the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis and the ostrich Struthio camelus. The effects of dissection treatment and observer were statistically significant for alligator wrist folding and ostrich wrist flexion, but not ostrich wrist folding. Final skeletonized wrist folding ROM was higher than (ostrich) or equivalent to (alligator) initial fully fleshed ROM, while final ROM was lower than initial ROM for ostrich wrist flexion. These findings suggest that, unlike the hinge/ball and socket-type elbow and shoulder joints in these archosaurs, ROM within gliding/planar diarthrotic joints is more restricted to the extent of articular surfaces. The alligator data indicate that the crocodilian wrist mechanism functions to automatically lock their semi-pronated palms into a rigid column, which supports the hypothesis that this palmar orientation necessitated soft tissue stiffening mechanisms in certain dinosaurs, although ROM-restricted articulations argue against the presence of an extensive automatic mechanism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Hutson J.D.,Northern Illinois University | Hutson J.D.,Elgin Community College
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2012

Recent studies have presented range of motion (ROM) data in degrees for dinosaur forelimb joints, usually via physical manipulation of one individual. Using these data, researchers have inferred limb orientations, postures, gaits, ecological functions and even phylogenetic trends within clades. However, important areas of concern remain unaddressed; for example, how does ROM at a forelimb joint change after soft tissues are lost in archosaurs? And are fossil ROM methodologies amenable to reproducibility and statistical analysis? Here, we investigated these questions using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Repeated measures of elbow joint ROM from Struthio camelus and Alligator mississippiensis forelimbs were statistically analyzed as they were sequentially dissected through five levels of tissue removal treatment. Our data indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in repeated measures of ROM between observers who use the same techniques. Extrinsic soft tissues, such as integument, muscles and ligaments were found to impede ROM at the elbow joint. Intrinsic soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, may increase ROM. The hypothesis that the articular surfaces of the bones within the elbow joints of archosaurs provide a general approximation of mobility is supported. Final ROMs were less than the initial ROMs in both taxa, which suggests that prior reports of elbow joint ROMs in degrees for nonavian dinosaurs may represent conservative estimates. We conclude that if observer bias and other variables are controlled for, ROM studies of fossil archosaur limbs can obtain useful degree data for inferring joint mobility in vivo. © 2012 Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Hutson J.D.,Northern Illinois University | Hutson J.D.,Elgin Community College
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

Using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs (crocodylians and birds), recent work has reported that elbow joint range of motion (ROM) studies of fossil dinosaur forearms may be providing conservative underestimates of fully fleshed in vivo ROM. As humeral ROM occupies a more central role in forelimb movements, the placement of quantitative constraints on shoulder joint ROM could improve fossil reconstructions. Here, we investigated whether soft tissues affect the more mobile shoulder joint in the same manner in which they affect elbow joint ROM in an extant archosaur. This test involved separately and repeatedly measuring humeral ROM in Alligator mississippiensis as soft tissues were dissected away in stages to bare bone. Our data show that the ROMs of humeral flexion and extension, as well as abduction and adduction, both show a statistically significant increase as flesh is removed, but then decrease when the bones must be physically articulated and moved until they separate from one another and/or visible joint surfaces. A similar ROM pattern is inferred for humeral pronation and supination. All final skeletonized ROMs were less than initial fully fleshed ROMs. These results are consistent with previously reported elbow joint ROM patterns from the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Thus, studies that avoid separation of complementary articular surfaces may be providing fossil shoulder joint ROMs that underestimate in vivo ROM in dinosaurs, as well as other fossil archosaurs. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


News Article | December 21, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Elgin Community College has been named a finalist for the third time in five years for the Bellwether Award by the Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA). The college is among 10 finalists for the 2017 award, which is judged competitively and is awarded by a panel of national experts in each category. ECC was the only Illinois community college selected as a finalist this year and was chosen out of more than 200 applicants. Finalists will present at the Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) on Jan. 30 in Orlando, FL, with winners to be announced on Jan. 31. ECC was nominated in the “Planning, Governance and Finance” category for its “Integrated Career and Academic Preparation System (ICAPS)—A Story of Success, Sustainability, and Scale. “We work hard at ECC to provide programs designed to improve college completion rates, strategically aligning grants and other resources to support initiatives that have proven to be successful,” said Peggy Heinrich, ECC’s Interim Vice President of Teaching, Learning, and Student Development. “This recognition validates that practice and affirms our commitment to ensuring all students, regardless of level, are able to succeed.” ICAPS provides free supplemental academic support, career readiness activities, and personalized advising to prepare students for the workforce in welding; computer numerical control (CNC) operator; heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR); dental office aide, and four new areas currently in development. ICAPS students are assigned to a group and attend all courses together, accompanied by a faculty member who provides additional support. All ICAPS programs are less than one year and lead to one or more credentials sought after by local employers. Established in 1995, the Bellwether Award focuses on cutting-edge, trendsetting programs that other colleges might find worthy of replicating. ECC won the Bellwether Award in 2013 for its Alliance for College Readiness initiative. It was a finalist in 2014 for its financial education program.


Hutson J.D.,Northern Illinois University | Hutson J.D.,Elgin Community College
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2015

Therians (marsupials and placentals), archosaurs, and chameleons are remarkable in that they evolved postures and gaits with inturned forelimbs. However, recent studies have indirectly recognized that, unlike fully pronated therian and chameleon forearms, dinosaur forearms were mechanically constrained by semi-pronated (misaligned) joints. This has led to the hypothesis that quadrupedal dinosaurs mitigated this constraint via proximal migration of the radius, indirectly forming a more pronated, tubular manus distally. To test this hypothesis, a standardized pose was used to examine the forearm pronation of ornithischian dinosaurs that were obligatory quadrupeds and facultative bipeds. Results show that only restructuring of the distal, not the proximal radius, causes additional pronation of the pre-axial edge of the carpus, but also unexpectedly reveal that the ulna may help form a tubular manus by supinating the post-axial edge. Thus, relative to the plane of the elbow joint the wrist and finger joints remain wholly semi-pronated. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a tubular cross-section evolved in dinosaurs to pronate the manus further to allow the finger joints to participate in locomotion. Instead these results indicate that quadrupedal dinosaurs tended to abandon propulsive use of their wrist and finger joints by converting their carpus + metacarpus into a vertical stilt-like extension of the forearm. Prior studies have overlooked that this divergent path to parasagittal forelimb kinematics had its phylogenetic basis in the retention of the semi-pronated forearm joint alignment that is plesiomorphic to tetrapods. Thus, this test provides the first functional explanation for the convergent responses of quadrupedal archosaurs to their misaligned forearm joints, and provides a foundation for elucidating why the quadrupedal evolution of archosaur forelimbs diverged from those of therians and chameleons. © 2015 L. Xing et al.


Saha A.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Chattopadhyay S.,Sector 10 ID | Chattopadhyay S.,Elgin Community College | Shibata T.,Sector 10 ID | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2016

Internal structure study at an atomic level is a challenging task with far reaching consequences to its material properties, specifically in the field of transition metal doping in quantum dots. Diffusion of transition metal ions in and out of quantum dots forming magnetic clusters has been a major bottleneck in this class of materials. Diffusion of the magnetic ions from the core into the nonmagnetic shell in a core/shell heterostructure architecture to attain uniform doping has been recently introduced and yet to be understood. In this work, we have studied the local structure variation of Fe as a function of CdS matrix thickness and annealing time during the overcoating of Fe3O4 core with CdS using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The data reveals that Fe3O4 core initially forms a core/shell structure with CdS followed by alloying at the interface eventually completely diffusing all the way through the CdS matrix to form homogeneously Fe-doped CdS QDs with excellent control over size and size distribution. Study of Fe K-edge shows a complete change of Fe local environment from Fe-O to FeS. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Burke S.V.,Northern Illinois University | Grennan C.P.,Northern Illinois University | Grennan C.P.,Elgin Community College | Duvall M.R.,Northern Illinois University
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Premise of the study: Two New World species of Bambusoideae, Arundinaria gigantea and Crytpochloa strictiflora, were investigated in a phylogenomic context. Complete plastome sequences have been previously determined and analyzed for nine bambusoid species that exclusively represent Old World lineages. The addition of New World species provides more complete information on relationships within Bambusoideae. Methods: Plastomes from A. gigantea and C. strictiflora were sequenced using Sanger methods. Phylogenomic and divergence estimate analyses were conducted on both species with 23 other Poaceae. Key Results: Phylogenomic and divergence analyses suggested that A. gigantea diverged from within Arundinarieae between 1.94-3.92 mya and that C. strictiflora diverged as the sister to tropical woody species between 24.83 and 40.22 mya. These results are correlated with modern relative diversities in the two lineages. Conclusions: The two New World bamboos show unique plastome features accumulated and maintained in biogeographic isolation from Old World taxa. The overall evidence for A. gigantea is consistent with recent dispersal, and that for C. strictiflora is consistent with vicariance. © 2012 Botanical Society of America.


Trademark
Elgin Community College | Date: 2012-04-24

Downloadable monthly electronic newsletters indicating upcoming meetings, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness. Monthly newsletters indicating upcoming meetings, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness. Providing on-line monthly newsletters indicating upcoming meetings, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness.


Trademark
Elgin Community College | Date: 2012-04-24

Downloadable monthly electronic newsletters indicating upcoming meetings, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness. Monthly newsletters indicating upcoming meetings, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness. Providing on-line monthly newsletters indicating upcoming meetings, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness.


Trademark
Elgin Community College | Date: 2013-09-27

Downloadable monthly electronic newsletters indicating upcoming meeting, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness. Printed monthly newsletters indicating upcoming meetings indicating upcoming meeting, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness. Education at university or and colleges, namely, providing courses of instruction at the college level; providing online monthly newsletters indicating upcoming meeting, events and workshops in the field of college preparedness.

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