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Steinau an der Straße, Germany

Gerlach C.,University of Bonn | Elsinghorst P.W.,University of Bonn | Elsinghorst P.W.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Schmarr H.-G.,German Aerospace Center | Wust M.,University of Bonn
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Skatole metabolites have been considered as putative contributors to boar taint. Recently, 2-aminoacetophenone, a volatile phase I skatole metabolite, was identified in back fat samples from boars of Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type. This paper addresses the question of the physiological origin of the observed 2-aminoacetophenone in these pigs. Microsomal fractions from nine boars were isolated, and formation of skatole metabolites was subsequently analyzed by stable-isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Significant breed-related differences in phase I skatole metabolism were observed, explaining the high levels of 2-aminoacetophenone in Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type boars. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Meier-Dinkel L.,University of Gottingen | Sharifi A.R.,University of Gottingen | Frieden L.,University of Bonn | Tholen E.,University of Bonn | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013

This study investigated the impact of two information conditions and two androstenone concentrations on the acceptability of fermented sausages made from boar meat. Two batches of salamis were produced by mixing bellies and lean meat resulting in average androstenone levels of 0.408. μg/g vs. 1.585. μg/g melted fat, respectively. Skatole levels were kept below 0.05. μg/g melted fat in the final products. The consumers were provided with either the information that the products consisted of 100% pork or 100% boar meat. In total, 478 visitors of an animal husbandry fair, assumed to be familiar with the consequences of not castrating male piglets, evaluated the salami following a monadic between-subject design. The information did not significantly affect the hedonic scores. The percentage of dislikes was very low, i.e. 3 vs. 6% (p. =. 0.24) for salami LOW and HIGH, respectively. The batch with lower androstenone content was liked slightly but significantly better (p. =. 0.03). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

The major boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole as well as the minor compounds indole, 3α-androstenol and 3β-androstenol were determined in back fat samples of 23 male wild boars by applying a recently published SIDA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method. The boar pheromones androstenone, 3α-androstenol and 3β-androstenol were found in extraordinary high concentrations, resulting in mean values of 3329 ng/g androstenone, 1273 ng/g 3α-androstenol and 545 ng/g 3β-androstenol. Interestingly, skatole was not detectable in about 50% of the boars and negligibly low in all other samples as expressed by a mean skatole value of only 14 ng/g. Indole was also found in every sample, but again in low concentrations with a mean value of 40 ng/g. Possible factors explaining this remarkably low skatole deposition in wild boars such as intestinal flora and anatomy, dietary composition, housing or genetic predisposition are discussed in this paper. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fischer J.,University of Bonn | Fischer J.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Haas T.,University of Bonn | Leppert J.,University of Bonn | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Boar taint is a specific off-odour of boar meat products, known to be caused by at least three unpleasant odorants, with very low odour thresholds. Androstenone is a boar pheromone produced in the testes, whereas skatole and indole originate from the microbial breakdown of tryptophan in the intestinal tract. A new procedure, applying stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) and dynamic headspace-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (dynHS-TD-GC/TOFMS) for the simultaneous quantitation of these boar taint compounds in pig fat was elaborated and validated in this paper. The new method is characterised by a simple and solvent-free dynamic headspace sampling. The deuterated compounds d3-androstenone, d3-skatole and d6-indole were used as internal standards to eliminate matrix effects. The method validation performed revealed low limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) with high accuracy and precision, thus confirming the feasibility of the new dynHS-TD-GC/TOFMS approach for routine analysis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Raters M.,Food Chemistry Institute | Elsinghorst P.W.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Goetze S.,Food Chemistry Institute | Dingel A.,Food Chemistry Institute | Matissek R.,Food Chemistry Institute
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

A quick and selective analytical method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of 2-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole, and 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole, which are known to be formed by Maillard reactions. The methodology reported here employs stable-isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) using 4-methylimidazole-d6 and [13C6]-2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole as internal standards. It was successfully applied in a model assay to show that the addition of ammonium chloride during the manufacture of licorice promotes imidazole formation depending on the added amount of ammonium chloride without the well-known impact of present caramel food colorings. Furthermore, a monitoring assay of 29 caramel coloring-free licorice products showed that both 4-methylimidazole and 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole are endogenously generated in detectable quantities. None of the samples showed 2-methylimidazole levels above the limit of detection, 50 μg/kg. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

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