ELFI Analytik GbR

Neufahrn bei Freising, Germany

ELFI Analytik GbR

Neufahrn bei Freising, Germany
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Fischer J.,University of Bonn | Fischer J.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Gerlach C.,University of Bonn | Gerlach C.,ELFI Analytik GbR | And 6 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

The major objective of the presented study was to evaluate whether the hepatic skatole metabolite 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AAP) is a potential contributor to boar taint, which is an undesired off-flavor in pork. Therefore, backfat samples were screened by HS-SPME-GC/MS revealing a significant accumulation of the hepatic skatole metabolite 2-AAP in boar fat. Subsequently, a stable-isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was elaborated to precisely quantitate 2-AAP in a set of 130 backfat samples. The observed concentrations ranged between 34. ng/g and 1178. ng/g, resulting in a mean value of 100. ng/g. In addition, the odor detection threshold of 2-AAP was evaluated by a trained sensory panel using a single-staircase, triple forced choice paradigm. The determined 2-AAP odor detection threshold is similar to the thresholds of the major boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole. Finally, a sensory evaluation of backfat samples spiked with 2-AAP was performed in a triangle test with untrained testers. Here, the 2-AAP spiked samples were frequently identified as the odd sample independent of their respective androstenone and skatole levels. In conclusion, the hepatic skatole metabolite 2-AAP was identified as a potential contributor to boar taint. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Morlein D.,University of Gottingen | Morlein D.,Isi GmbH | Trautmann J.,University of Gottingen | Gertheiss J.,University of Gottingen | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

This study analyzed odor-odor interactions of two malodorous volatile substances, androstenone and skatole, that may accumulate in fat and meat of uncastrated male (boar) pigs. Therefore, fat samples were collected from 1000+ entire male pig carcasses for sensory evaluation and quantification of boar taint compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Each sample was sniffed by 10 trained assessors, resulting in 11000+ individual ratings, which were subjected to statistical analysis. Pearson correlations of chemical traits and sensory traits (panel average) were higher for skatole [r(1029) = 0.59; p < 0.001] than for androstenone [r(1029) = 0.44; p < 0.001]. Linear terms of androstenone and skatole as well as their interaction significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to perception of deviant smell (R2 = 0.43). Standardized regression coefficients illustrate the higher importance of skatole (β = 0.68) than androstenone (β = 0.39). Interindividual differences in the responses of assessors to androstenone and skatole are confirmed. A new curved approach is suggested because it better accounts for the interaction of androstenone and skatole than the "safe box" approach. On the basis of these data, sorting strategies using instrumental measurements are discussed. An automated detection based on only skatole measurements is recommended because its performance is only slightly inferior to a sorting based on both androstenone and skatole. Sorting thresholds need to be calibrated against consumer acceptance though. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Gerlach C.,University of Bonn | Elsinghorst P.W.,University of Bonn | Elsinghorst P.W.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Schmarr H.-G.,German Aerospace Center | Wust M.,University of Bonn
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Skatole metabolites have been considered as putative contributors to boar taint. Recently, 2-aminoacetophenone, a volatile phase I skatole metabolite, was identified in back fat samples from boars of Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type. This paper addresses the question of the physiological origin of the observed 2-aminoacetophenone in these pigs. Microsomal fractions from nine boars were isolated, and formation of skatole metabolites was subsequently analyzed by stable-isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Significant breed-related differences in phase I skatole metabolism were observed, explaining the high levels of 2-aminoacetophenone in Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type boars. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Fischer J.,University of Bonn | Fischer J.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Haas T.,University of Bonn | Leppert J.,University of Bonn | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Boar taint is a specific off-odour of boar meat products, known to be caused by at least three unpleasant odorants, with very low odour thresholds. Androstenone is a boar pheromone produced in the testes, whereas skatole and indole originate from the microbial breakdown of tryptophan in the intestinal tract. A new procedure, applying stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) and dynamic headspace-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (dynHS-TD-GC/TOFMS) for the simultaneous quantitation of these boar taint compounds in pig fat was elaborated and validated in this paper. The new method is characterised by a simple and solvent-free dynamic headspace sampling. The deuterated compounds d3-androstenone, d3-skatole and d6-indole were used as internal standards to eliminate matrix effects. The method validation performed revealed low limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) with high accuracy and precision, thus confirming the feasibility of the new dynHS-TD-GC/TOFMS approach for routine analysis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Bonn, ELFI Analytik GbR, Vion Food Group, Tonnies Lebensmittel GmbH & Co. KG and University of Gottingen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

This study analyzed odor-odor interactions of two malodorous volatile substances, androstenone and skatole, that may accumulate in fat and meat of uncastrated male (boar) pigs. Therefore, fat samples were collected from 1000+ entire male pig carcasses for sensory evaluation and quantification of boar taint compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Each sample was sniffed by 10 trained assessors, resulting in 11000+ individual ratings, which were subjected to statistical analysis. Pearson correlations of chemical traits and sensory traits (panel average) were higher for skatole [r(1029) = 0.59; p < 0.001] than for androstenone [r(1029) = 0.44; p < 0.001]. Linear terms of androstenone and skatole as well as their interaction significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to perception of deviant smell (R(2) = 0.43). Standardized regression coefficients illustrate the higher importance of skatole ( = 0.68) than androstenone ( = 0.39). Interindividual differences in the responses of assessors to androstenone and skatole are confirmed. A new curved approach is suggested because it better accounts for the interaction of androstenone and skatole than the safe box approach. On the basis of these data, sorting strategies using instrumental measurements are discussed. An automated detection based on only skatole measurements is recommended because its performance is only slightly inferior to a sorting based on both androstenone and skatole. Sorting thresholds need to be calibrated against consumer acceptance though.


Elsinghorst P.W.,University of Bonn | Elsinghorst P.W.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Elsinghorst P.W.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Raters M.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

2-Acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) is a minor toxic contaminant observed in caramel food colorings and was shown to exert immunosuppressant activity when fed to rodents. Because of this toxicity, maximum levels of THI in caramel food colorings have been defined by international and European authorities. Several reports of THI analysis using external standardization have been published for liquid foods such as beers and soft drinks. However, no suitable internal standard has yet been described allowing THI analysis in more complex samples. In this paper we describe the preparation of a labeled [13C6]THI analogue and its application for the successful validation of the first stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) of THI in caramel food colorings. A brief survey of THI levels in commercially available caramel class III (E 150c) and IV (E 150d) food colorings is also included, corroborating that THI occurs only in caramel class III food colorings. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Meier-Dinkel L.,University of Gottingen | Sharifi A.R.,University of Gottingen | Frieden L.,University of Bonn | Tholen E.,University of Bonn | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013

This study investigated the impact of two information conditions and two androstenone concentrations on the acceptability of fermented sausages made from boar meat. Two batches of salamis were produced by mixing bellies and lean meat resulting in average androstenone levels of 0.408. μg/g vs. 1.585. μg/g melted fat, respectively. Skatole levels were kept below 0.05. μg/g melted fat in the final products. The consumers were provided with either the information that the products consisted of 100% pork or 100% boar meat. In total, 478 visitors of an animal husbandry fair, assumed to be familiar with the consequences of not castrating male piglets, evaluated the salami following a monadic between-subject design. The information did not significantly affect the hedonic scores. The percentage of dislikes was very low, i.e. 3 vs. 6% (p. =. 0.24) for salami LOW and HIGH, respectively. The batch with lower androstenone content was liked slightly but significantly better (p. =. 0.03). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


The major boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole as well as the minor compounds indole, 3α-androstenol and 3β-androstenol were determined in back fat samples of 23 male wild boars by applying a recently published SIDA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method. The boar pheromones androstenone, 3α-androstenol and 3β-androstenol were found in extraordinary high concentrations, resulting in mean values of 3329 ng/g androstenone, 1273 ng/g 3α-androstenol and 545 ng/g 3β-androstenol. Interestingly, skatole was not detectable in about 50% of the boars and negligibly low in all other samples as expressed by a mean skatole value of only 14 ng/g. Indole was also found in every sample, but again in low concentrations with a mean value of 40 ng/g. Possible factors explaining this remarkably low skatole deposition in wild boars such as intestinal flora and anatomy, dietary composition, housing or genetic predisposition are discussed in this paper. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fischer J.,University of Bonn | Fischer J.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Brinkmann D.,University of Bonn | Elsinghorst P.W.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Wust M.,University of Bonn
Meat Science | Year: 2012

A novel SIDA-DI-SPME-GC/MS procedure for the quantitation of skatole in pork meat juice was developed and validated as a substitute for back fat sample analysis. System suitability was evaluated by determining the correlation between skatole concentrations in a subset of 38 paired meat juice and back fat samples selected from 90 fattened boars. High correlation was observed between both matrices and conclusions about the partitioning of skatole as well as of androstenone between fat and lean compartments in vivo were drawn. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Raters M.,Food Chemistry Institute | Elsinghorst P.W.,ELFI Analytik GbR | Goetze S.,Food Chemistry Institute | Dingel A.,Food Chemistry Institute | Matissek R.,Food Chemistry Institute
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

A quick and selective analytical method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of 2-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole, and 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole, which are known to be formed by Maillard reactions. The methodology reported here employs stable-isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) using 4-methylimidazole-d6 and [13C6]-2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole as internal standards. It was successfully applied in a model assay to show that the addition of ammonium chloride during the manufacture of licorice promotes imidazole formation depending on the added amount of ammonium chloride without the well-known impact of present caramel food colorings. Furthermore, a monitoring assay of 29 caramel coloring-free licorice products showed that both 4-methylimidazole and 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole are endogenously generated in detectable quantities. None of the samples showed 2-methylimidazole levels above the limit of detection, 50 μg/kg. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

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