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Allaria E.,Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste
Nature Photonics | Year: 2016

Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) produce short-wavelength pulses with high intensity, ultrashort duration, well-defined polarization and transverse coherence, and have been utilized for many experiments previously possible only at long wavelengths: multiphoton ionization, pumping an atomic laser and four-wave mixing spectroscopy. However one important optical technique, coherent control, has not yet been demonstrated, because self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs have limited longitudinal coherence. Single-colour pulses from the FERMI seeded FEL are longitudinally coherent, and two-colour emission is predicted to be coherent. Here, we demonstrate the phase correlation of two colours, and manipulate it to control an experiment. Light of wavelengths 63.0 and 31.5 nm ionized neon, and we controlled the asymmetry of the photoelectron angular distribution by adjusting the phase, with a temporal resolution of 3 as. This opens the door to new short-wavelength coherent control experiments with ultrahigh time resolution and chemical sensitivity. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group

Di Mitri S.,Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste | Cornacchia M.,Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

Linear accelerators delivering high brightness electron beams are essential for a number of current and proposed accelerator applications, such as free electron lasers (FELs). In this kind of facilities the charge density is high enough to drive collective effects (wakefields) that, notwithstanding the high beam rigidity at energies up to the GeV range, may increase the beam emittance relative to the injection level, eventually degrading the nominal beam brightness. New theoretical developments and experimental capabilities, driven by the recent construction of vacuum-ultra-violet and X-ray linac-driven FELs, have advanced the present knowledge. This article describes the progress in the field of ultra-relativistic electron beam manipulation to maximize the final beam brightness, with a focus on the most recent techniques including optics design, pulse shaping and brightness optimization strategies. The theoretical models are supported by a review of the experimental results in now-running FEL facilities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: GC.NMP.2012-1 | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2012

Li-ion batteries become a reality in the future vehicles, although they do not fulfil completely the demands of consumers. In this respect batteries with higher energy density are required. Lithium technology utilizing sulphur as a cathode is one of the optimal choices since it offers the possibility of achieving high-energy, long-life storage batteries with a potential low price. At present, the practical use is faced with two major problems: (i) a low intrinsic conductivity of sulphur and polysulphides and (ii) loss of active materials due to solubility of the intermediate products in the commonly used electrolytes. The low intrinsic conductivity can be overcome using improved electronic wiring. The occurrence of soluble polysulphides is reflected as a loss of the active material during the cycling and additionally soluble polysulphides are responsible for overcharging problem which lowers the energy efficiency. With an aim to have stable capacity retention with a good cycling efficiency it is important to find a suitable electrochemical environment for the lithium sulphur batteries. Possible approaches are using polysulphide reservoirs with modified surfaces in the highly mesoporous conductive matrix. Proposed system with high surface area should enable weak adsorption of polysulphides intermediates allowing reversible desorption. This way a full utilization of the active material without significant losses can be obtained. In order to understand the influence of surface area and surface modification, including interactions between electrolyte and sulphur based cathode composite we need to have a reliable characterization techniques. In this respect different electrochemical, spectroscopic and physical characterization (in-situ or ex-situ) techniques can provide us valuable informations about the possible mechanism which can be used in planning of substrates for sulphur in the Li-S batteries.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 19.94M | Year: 2015

The science of materials has always been at the centre of scientific and technological progress in human development. The tools to understand materials that fashion them to meet our societal needs have been just as important. Thermal neutrons are one of the most powerful probes that look directly at the structure and dynamics of materials from the macro- to the microscopic scale and from nano-seconds to seconds. It is therefore natural that a group of 17 European Partner Countries have joined together to construct the worlds most powerful neutron source, the European Spallation Source (ESS). The importance of ESS has been recognised by ESFRI who have prioritised it as one of three Research Infrastructures (RIs) for this INFRADEV-3 call. However, simply constructing the most powerful spallation neutron source will not, by itself, ensure the maximum scientific or technological impact. What is needed is an integrated program that ensures that key challenges are met in order to build an ESS that can deliver high impact scientific and technological knowledge. With a timeline of 36 months, involving 18 Consortium Partners and a budget of 19.941.964, the BrightnESS proposal will ensure that (A) the extensive knowledge and skills of European companies, and institutes, are best deployed in the form of In-Kind Contributions to ESS for its construction and operation, (B) that technology transfer both to, and from, the ESS to European institutions and companies is optimised and, (C) that the maximum technical performance is obtained from the ESS target, moderators and detectors in order to deliver world class science and insights for materials technology and innovation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-STG | Phase: ERC-StG-2015 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2016

Standard time domain experiments measure the time evolution of the reflected/transmitted mean number of photons in the probe pulses. The evolution of the response of a material is typically averaged over the illuminated area as well as over many pump and probe measurements repeated stroboscopically. The aim of this project is to extend time domain optical spectroscopy beyond mean photon number measurements by performing a full Time Resolved Quantum State Reconstruction (TRQSR) of the probe pulses as a function of the pump and probe delay. The nature of the light matter interaction and the transient light-induced states of matter will be imprinted into the probe quantum state after the interaction with the material and can be uncovered with unprecedented detail with this new approach to time domain studies. TRQSR will be implemented by combining pump and probe experiments resolving single light pulses with balanced homodyne detection quantum tomography in the pulsed regime. We will apply and exploit the unique capabilities of TRQSR to address two different unresolved problems in condensed matter. Firstly, we will investigate the coherent and squeezed nature of low energy photo-induced vibrational states. We will use TRQSR with probe pulses shorter than the phonon timescale to interrogate the time evolution of the vibrational state induced by the pump pulse. Secondly, we will address inhomogeneities in photo-induced phase transformations. With TRQSR we can perform time domain measurements with a very small photon number per pulse which will give information on the interaction between the material (as prepared by the pump pulse) and individual photons. In this limit, TRQSR will allow us to retrieve rich statistics. While the average will deliver the information of a standard pump and probe experiment, higher order moments will give information on the time evolution of spatial inhomogenieties in the transient state.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.23. | Award Amount: 8.59M | Year: 2012

CALIPSO coordinates the European synchrotrons and FELs, including the three ESFRI roadmap projects European XFEL, EuroFEL and the ESRF Upgrade Programme, towards a fully integrated network. The consortium is characterised by common objectives, harmonised decisions, transnational open access based on excellence and joint development of new instruments. Innovative networking initiatives address user friendliness and a strengthened industrial interaction. CALIPSO proposes a single entry point (www.wayforlight.eu) to simplify access modalities, to coach potential users to find the best beamline for their experiment and to favour interactivity; in addition, targeted education actions will widen and strengthen the community. Transnational Access potentially benefits a community of 10,000 European users represented by the recently formed European Synchrotron User Organisation (www.ESUO.org). The pivotal EC funding in CALIPSO supports scientists to perform their research at the best facilities, thus promoting equal opportunities for all European researchers. This is particularly important for colleagues from less-favoured countries, early stage and female researchers. The European light sources represent a largely underexploited pool for European industry. To enhance light sourceindustry interactions, CALIPSO proposes a networking activity including specific events to involve industries both as users and instrumentation suppliers, a pan-European Industrial Advisory Board to orient these actions, in preparation for Horizon 2020, and a dedicated task to exploit the innovation potential of the Joint Research Activity. The CALIPSO joint research activity will focus on detectors development, one of the most significant joint challenges for present and future light sources. For Europe to succeed and remain a leader in detectors development, a coordinated action is necessary rather than individual efforts. A close collaboration of the CALIPSO JRA and the industrially-driven action will be setup with the recently signed Detector Consortium initiative, lending an important added dimension with pan-European impact.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2015

LASERLAB-EUROPE is the European consortium of major national laser research infrastructures, covering advanced laser science and applications in most domains of research and technology, with particular emphasis on areas with high industrial and social impact, such as bio- and nanophotonics, material analyses, biology and medicine. Recently the field of advanced lasers has experienced remarkable advances and breakthroughs in laser technologies and novel applications. Laser technology is a key innovation driver for highly varied applications and products in many areas of modern society, thereby substantially contributing to economic growth. Through its strategic approach, LASERLAB-EUROPE aims to strengthen Europes leading position and competitiveness in this key area. It facilitates the coordination of laser research activities within the European Research Area by integrating major facilities in most European member states with a long-term perspective and providing concerted and efficient services to researchers in science and industry. The main objectives of LASERLAB-EUROPE are to: promote, in a coordinated way and on a European scale, the use of advanced lasers and laser-based technologies for research and innovation, serve a cross-disciplinary user community, from academia as well as from industry, by providing access to a comprehensive set of advanced laser research installations, including two free-electron laser facilities, increase the European basis of human resources in the field of lasers by training new users, including users in new domains of science and technology and from geographical regions of Europe where laser user communities are still less developed, improve human and technical resources through technology exchange and sharing of expertise among laser experts and operators across Europe, and through coordinated Joint Research Activities enabling world-class research, innovations and applications beyond the present state-of-the-art.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.3.1 | Award Amount: 4.40M | Year: 2012

Charge storage has been the main physical mechanism supporting all solid state mass storage memories until now, both DRAM and FLASH. However none of the two main memory types appear to fully satisfy system requirements, DRAM because of its volatility and large power dissipation, and FLASH because of its slow programming speed and large block organization. PCM technology is a promising candidate to target the universal memory matching most of the properties of FLASH and DRAM. However, to realize the full potential of PCM two crucial memory characteristics have to be improved: programming current and switching speed.The new memory concept investigated in the project is based on engineered Chalcogenide SuperLattices (CSL) that should allow realizing the memory switching with a modification in the bonding nature instead of the energy expensive melting process, bringing about a significant reduction of both transition times and programming currents. Despite the convincing experimental evidence the physical mechanism is not yet understood.The project aims at exploiting the potential of CSL-PCM memory cells, starting from an atomistic understanding of switching in CSL materials through experiments and physical model development, leading to new insights for CSL engineering. Optimization of the CSL device will be achieved through the development of a test vehicle allowing the benchmark among different stacks, based on universal memory electrical performance targets. A large array, realized at 2X technology node, will be fabricated and integration issues will be addressed. Scalability to the 1X node will be also evaluated to demonstrate the capability to become a real universal memory also for the next generations of memory chips.At the end of the project a first universal memory chip at the state of the art technology node will be available with an expected direct impact on the solid state memory market.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 7.47M | Year: 2015

Advanced optical laser light sources and accelerator-based X-ray sources, as well as their technologies, scientific applications, and user communities, have developed independently over more than five decades. Driven by the developments at each optical laser and free-electron laser research infrastructures (RIs) in recent years, the gap between the optical laser and accelerator-driven light sources has diminished significantly. Both communities operate, implement, or plan advanced laser light source RIs, combining high-power optical and high-brightness X-ray light sources operated as dedicated user facilities. Operational and technical problems of these RIs have become very similar, if not identical. In specific cases, joint projects by the two communities have been initiated, but a closer and more structured collaboration of the corresponding communities and light sources is urgently required and shall be developed through this project. The present proposal for a European Cluster of Advanced Laser Light Sources (EUCALL) is the first attempt to create an all-embracing consortium of all (optical and X-ray) advanced laser light source RIs in Europe. Besides addressing the most urgent technical challenges, EUCALL will develop and implement cross-cutting services for photon-oriented ESFRI projects, will optimize the use of advanced laser light sources in Europe by efficient cross-community resource management, will enhance interoperability of the two types of light sources, will ensure global competitiveness, and will stimulate and support common long-term strategies and research policies for the application of laser-like short-wavelength radiation in science and innovation. The EUCALL consortium includes the three ESFRI projects ELI, European XFEL, and ESRF(up), several national RIs, and the LASERLAB-EUROPE and FELs OF EUROPE networks as representatives for the nationally operated optical laser and free-electron laser RIs.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-01-2016 | Award Amount: 2.10M | Year: 2017

The OPEN SESAME project will ensure optimal exploitation of the Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) light source. With this aim, OPEN SESAME has three key objectives: 1. To train SESAME staff in the storage ring and beamline instrumentation technology, research techniques and administration for optimal use of a modern light source facility. 2. To build-up human capacity in Middle East researchers to optimally exploit SESAMEs infrastructure. 3. To train SESAME staff and its user community in public outreach and corporate communications, and to support SESAME and its stakeholders in building awareness and demonstrating its socio-economic impact to assure longer term exploitation. Each objective is tackled by a work package. Firstly, SESAME staff training is addressed by 65 staff exchanges planned between SESAME and the European partners. Secondly, capacity-building is targeted by five training schools, a short-term fellowship programme and an industrial workshop. Finally, a proactive communications strategy will be created, including an educational roadshow to all of the SESAME Members, and a training programme in research infrastructure administration and their economic role and impact for young science managers of SESAME Member stakeholders. The project directly addresses the INFRASUPP-2016-2017 call to support SESAME. OPEN SESAME is well aligned to the broader scope of the work programme with activities that will have a lasting impact on a reinforced European Research Area, and particularly in strengthening international cooperation for research infrastructures with a key Region located close to Europe. The project has been developed closely with SESAME, its Directors and international Training Advisory Committee. The OPEN SESAME consortium is composed of ten European institutes (six light sources, The Cyprus Institute, CERN, CNRS and Instruct) along with SESAME itself.

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