Eletrobras is a major Brazilian electric utilities company. It's also Latin America's biggest power utility company, tenth largest in the world and is also the fourth largest clean energy company in the world. Eletrobras holds stakes in a number of Brazilian electric companies, so that it generates about 40% and transmits 69% of Brazil's electric supply. The company's generating capacity is about 43,000 MW, mostly in hydroelectric plants. The Brazilian federal government owns 52% stake in Eletrobras, rest of shares are traded on BM&F Bovespa. The stock is part of the Ibovespa index. It is also traded on the New York Stock Exchange and on the Madrid Stock ExchangeThe company's headquarters are located in Brasília, however its main offices are located in Rio de Janeiro. Wikipedia.
de Souza F.C.,Eletrobras |
Legey L.F.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Energy Policy | Year: 2010
In 2004, the reform of the Brazilian Electricity Market underwent a thorough revision. One of its causes was the electricity rationing that began in June 2001 and lasted until February 2002. Among other measures, the 2004 revision devised new mechanisms intended to reduce risks associated to contracts settled in electricity auctions and those related to investments in new generation plants. As 4 years have passed since the onset of the reform's revision, sufficiently enough data are now available for an analysis of the post-revision dynamics of the Brazilian Electricity Market. This is the purpose of the present paper. We focus on the dynamics of the different types of electricity auctions and on the so-called Mechanism for Compensation of Surpluses and Deficits, both created in the wake of the 2004 revision. The ultimate goal is to understand the behavior of the agents involved in auctions - notably buyers and sellers of electricity - and propose remedial actions to eliminate existing loopholes in the present regulatory framework. To achieve this goal, four steps were necessary. Firstly, a data base to support the analysis was built. Then, the main drivers of the dynamics of the risk management tools were identified. Finally, consequences of the implemented changes were discussed and corrections for observed pitfalls proposed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Sagastizabal C.,Eletrobras |
Solodov M.,Institute Matematica Pura e Aplicada
Computational Management Science | Year: 2012
We discuss the energy generation expansion planning with environmental constraints, formulated as a nonsmooth convex constrained optimization problem. To solve such problems, methods suitable for constrained nonsmooth optimization need to be employed. We describe a recently developed approach, which applies the usual unconstrained bundle techniques to a dynamically changing "improvement function". Numerical results for the generation expansion planning are reported. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source
This story has been updated. It’s just the latest sign of mounting tension over the next stage of development in the threatened Amazon — enormous dams that will generate huge amounts of electricity, but also, inevitably, have major ecological consequences. A report released Wednesday by Greenpeace — which is highly active in the Amazon region — has decried the Brazilian government’s plans for a huge new hydropower project in the Amazon’s Tapajós river basin, questioning both the project’s purported environmental impact and even its legality. The organization has called for the halting of the project and urges the expansion of other clean energy forms instead. But in reality, other experts said, Brazil’s hunger for energy and major reliance on dams (rather than fossil fuels) for generating it seems unlikely to abate any time soon. The new project, known as the São Luiz do Tapajós dam, is shooting for a maximum electricity generating capacity of more than 8,000 megawatts and, at nearly five miles wide, would block one of the last major unobstructed tributaries in the Amazon and flood thousands of square miles in the process. It’s the largest of five dams currently planned for the Tapajós river, according to Greenpeace, and one of about 200 proposed hydropower projects proposed throughout the Amazon basin. Hydropower is particularly favored by Brazil, where hydroelectric plants account for about 80 percent of the electricity generated in the country. But while hydropower is certainly a low carbon form of energy, scientists and activists are growing increasingly concerned about its other environmental impacts. Recent research has suggested that damming is responsible for a myriad of detrimental effects in the Amazon basin, threatening water quality, degrading habitat for wildlife and drawing more humans into remote regions, which can indirectly drive activities like mining and deforestation. This is a major problem both for the natural environment and for the indigenous populations who live in the affected areas. In this context, Greenpeace charges that the environmental impact assessment submitted by one of the consortia expected to bid for the project was “deeply flawed.” Representatives from Eletrobras, a state-run energy utility company and leader of the consortium that submitted the environmental impact assessment, did not immediately respond to requests for comment on the report. A statement from Brazil’s Ministry of Mines and Energy to The Washington Post in response to the Greenpeace report said, “The current Brazilian hydroelectric projects are characterized by the respect for the environment and the population, with previously defined plans for environmental and social compensation, improvements to the local society, and a commitment to international protocols to be followed in relation with society, as in the Equator Principles.” The statement also noted that hydropower is the cheapest energy source available in Brazil. Even beyond the importance of scientifically sound environmental impact assessments for individual projects, though, other experts have also emphasized the need for basin-wide evaluations of the effects of damming. David McGrath, deputy director and senior scientist at the Earth Innovation Institute and a professor at the Federal University of Pará in Brazil, has previously told The Washington Post that this type of large-scale analysis should be one of the highest priorities for scientists and policymakers looking for a more complete view of how all the hydropower projects in the basin may build on one another’s impacts — although he’s also noted that the institutional capacity for such an analysis is still lacking. While damming is widely believed to be a source of havoc in the natural environment, some experts have also pointed out that environmental destruction can feed back and negatively impact hydropower production. This is a point that was not fully conveyed in the Greenpeace paper, said Claudia Stickler, a scientist and Amazon expert with the Earth Innovation Institute, who was not involved with the report. “The bigger deforestation problem in the Amazon as a whole is really also going to affect these hydropower projects,” Stickler said. “For me, that’s one of the most damning pieces of evidence against a lot of these big installations.” Large-scale deforestation in the Amazon can cause trouble with water flow, Stickler explained. With fewer trees in the region to recycle water and return it to the atmosphere, rainfall patterns can actually be disrupted over time. And the landscape changes that come with deforestation can also cause more water to run off instead of soaking into the soil and being sucked up by the remaining vegetation, making the problem even worse. These factors may disrupt water flow in the Amazon’s river systems over time and lower the output of hydropower installations. “That’s something that’s not being taken into account by the engineers that are continually doing projections of hydropower energy generation,” Stickler said. At the same time, the Greenpeace report argues, dams can become an indirect driver of deforestation in the region as well, by drawing workers into remote areas and leading into the construction of new roads and communities. However, all of these complaints having been made, the solutions to the hydropower issue are still unclear. The Greenpeace report has called on the Brazilian government to halt the Tapajós project, as well as plans for other installations throughout the Amazon, and explore alternative energy sources instead. But this may be an unlikely outcome for the time being. “We’re talking about a giant country that really does mostly depend on hydropower production for its energy,” Stickler said. “As much as Greenpeace might not like the idea that they have economic plans that require more energy, the reality is that you’re not going to be able to do away with that.” In regard to alternative energy solutions, Stickler noted that Brazil’s challenges are similar to those faced in much of the rest of the world — mainly issues with efficiency and storage that, while improving, still need more independent analysis in order to evaluate how well they could take over the power that’s currently being counted on from proposed hydroelectric installations. Even so, Stickler and other scientists have noted that the need for alternative solutions is growing greater as the devastating impacts of damming become increasingly clear. And while the São Luiz do Tapajós project will likely continue on for now, it may also become the next symbol of how profoundly human activity is changing the Amazon.
News Article | March 15, 2016
Originally published by the World Resources Institute by Joe Thwaites When it comes to renewable energy generation, the South American country of Uruguay is a huge success story. The developing nation went from having virtually no wind generation in 2007 to become a double world-record holder in less than a decade. By 2013, it was receiving the largest share of clean energy investment as a percentage of GDP, and in 2014, installed the most wind per capita of any country. By mid-2015, the country had installed 581 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity, providing an average 17 percent of total electricity generation over the year. Wind energy is now cost competitive in the nation, and is displacing the most expensive fossil-fuel generation. Uruguay is at the forefront of a growing movement of countries, communities and individuals who are transforming the way they generate and use energy. Meeting the goal of the Paris Agreement to keep warming well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) in order to prevent dangerous climate change will require a rapid and deep reduction of emissions. To achieve this countries will, among other things, need to fundamentally transform their energy sectors away from fossil fuels and towards clean, renewable energy. In our new working paper, Transformational Climate Finance: An Exploration of Low-Carbon Energy, we look at how funding can be used to bring about such large-scale, long-term and rapid changes in the energy sector to boost renewable energy and energy efficiency. In order to understand how climate finance can deliver this “transformational” change, we analyzed case studies covering a variety of geographies, energy sources and degrees of transformation. Uruguay’s wind sector was one of the most successful cases we found. The way it achieved results provides powerful lessons for other nations looking to transform their energy systems, and for funders such as the Green Climate Fund, whose Board is meeting this week to consider how it can best fulfil its mandate to promote a “paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways.” Uruguay’s wind development was driven by a desire to increase energy security. The country had relied heavily on hydropower historically. But with a decade of dry years between 1997 and 2007, hydro’s share of electricity generation fell from more than 90 percent to around 50 percent, leading to an increase in fossil-fuel imports (the country has no domestic reserves). By 2007, imported fossil fuels provided a third of generation. In addition to import costs, the increased reliance on fossil fuels added to the fiscal burden of providing residential subsidies. Given the steadily rising electricity demand, the government sought ways to diversify its energy sources. In 2007, Uruguay secured an initial grant of $1 million from the Global Environment Facility, delivered through the UN Development Programme, and put up $6 million in co-financing from its national budget. This funded the Uruguay Wind Energy Programme, which ran until 2012 and focused on policy reform and technical capacity building. The Wind Energy Programme supported the Government of Uruguay in creating an ambitious national policy on renewable energy. This included crafting a competitive bidding mechanism for large-scale renewable energy development and a feed-in tariff for smaller-scale systems, which allowed non-utility power producers to sell renewable energy to the grid at standardized prices. The state-owned utility was required to buy all clean power generated. To encourage early development, producers receive a higher price for electricity generated from projects that came online before 2015. The government also used funding to train staff at the national electricity utility on how to work with renewable energy sources to integrate them into the grid. With little prior experience in dealing with variable generation, the state utility developed a demonstration wind farm and created a renewable energy technology curriculum at Uruguay’s Universidad de la República to train its staff. The utility also conducted outreach to developers and investors to build their knowledge and address perceptions of risk in the wind sector. Dialogues among stakeholders also helped regional cooperation, with Uruguay now working with the Brazilian utility Eletrobras to develop wind projects along their shared border. Uruguay’s reforms provided the policy stability and technical expertise to kick-start wind investment, with the nation now receiving more than $1 billion a year in investment for clean energy. The country has continuously exceeded its wind targets. The government aimed to have 300 MW of installed wind capacity by 2015, which was increased to 500 MW as development beat expectations. Uruguay now aims to generate 38 percent of its electricity from wind by the end of 2017, more than doubling the current share. Uruguay demonstrates how using climate finance for smart policy and effective training can have a transformative effect on low-carbon energy development. With a few million dollars in public funding, the country created an enabling environment for renewable energy development that allowed billions of dollars in private investment to flow, resulting in rapid wind power deployment. 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Pereira-Neto A.,Eletrobras |
Saavedra O.R.,Federal University of Maranhao
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2014
The restructuring of electricity markets has caused significant changes in electric power systems of various countries. In this new scenario, each generation company performs individual dispatch strategies to maximize their financial benefits, while meeting power demand and spinning reserves are no longer mandatory. On the other hand, the system operator is looking for a minimum price of energy while demand and security constraints are met. These two points of view coexist in a competitive environment and are modeled and solved in this work. The simultaneous solution for the profit-based unit commitment (considering the point of view of generating agents) and the security-constrained minimum-cost unit commitment (operator side) problems considering a 24-h planning horizon is formulated in this study. The goal is to obtain the lowest price at which the generating agents are willing to meet the demand of the energy market, considering the network constraints. The algorithm emulates the behavior of the generating agents in offering products for both the energy primary and reserve markets in response to a reference price offered by the market operator. This iterative procedure is completed when the supply of generators is sufficient to meet demand and security constraints. The proposed solution method is based on evolutionary strategies and Lagrange relaxation, resulting in a robust hybrid approach. The algorithm was validated in a six-node system, 7 branches and 10 generating units, considering various scenarios. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method, which proved able to solve several models of the unit commitment problem. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source