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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Khan F.A.,King Saud University | Al Jameil N.,King Saud University | Arjumand S.,King Saud University | Khan M.F.,King Saud University | And 6 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2015

Trace element (TE) disturbances are well noted in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated complications. In present study, the effect of proteinuria on serum copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in T2DM patients with and without proteinuria was seen. Total subjects were aged between 30 and 90 years; 73 had proteinuria, 76 had T2DM with proteinuria, 76 had T2DM, and 75 were controls. Serum Cu(II), Fe(III), Mg(II), and Zn(II) were assayed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Urinary albumin estimation was performed by turbidimetric method. Other biochemical parameters were analyzed by ROCHE Module COBAS 6000 analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P < 0.0001 followed by t test. Pearson correlation was applied to estimate the effect of proteinuria on TE. Serum Cu(II) level was increased in T2DM patients with proteinuria while Fe(III) was found elevated in T2DM (P < 0.0001) compared to control groups. Zn(II) and Mg(II) were significantly low in proteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM (P < 0.0001) compare to controls. Serum Cu(II) showed strong positive association with albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) in T2DM with proteinuria group and T2DM group (P < 0.01). Fe(III) was positively and Zn(II) was negatively associated with ACR at P < 0.10, in T2DM with proteinuria group. Mg(II) was negatively linked with ACR P < 0.01 in proteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM group. TE were observed more disturbed in T2DM with proteinuria group, thus considered to be the part of T2DM routine checkup and restricts the disease towards its progression. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Al-Jameil N.,King Saud University | Tabassum H.,King Saud University | Al-Mayouf H.,Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Aljohar H.I.,Element Analysis Unit | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2014

Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and pre-term delivery in world. In concern to the increasing number of preeclamptic cases and lack of data about the interrelation between levels of trace elements and preeclampsia, we conducted a hospital based case-control study to assess the risk of preeclampsia in relation to concentrations of trace elements like copper, manganese and zinc in a hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each - control, HR group and the PET group. The serum levels of Cu, Mn and Zn were estimated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Analysis of trace elements revealed that mean values of Cu, Mn and Zn were 2.01 ± 0.43, 0.125 ± 0.07 and 1.30 ± 0.83 mg/L respectively in control. In preeclamptic group, the mean values of Cu, Mn and Zn were 1.554 ± 0.53, 0.072 ± 0.06 and 0.67 ± 0.59 mg/L respectively. Levels of Cu and Zn were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.001) in preeclamptic group compared to control. Pearsons correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between levels of Cu, Mn and Zn and systolic blood pressure. However the correlation of Cu, Mn and Zn with maternal age, gestational age, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was statistically insignificant. In conclusion, our study suggests that preeclamptic patients have considerably lower levels of Cu, Mn and Zn compared to control and reduction in serum levels of copper, manganese, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in etiology of preeclampsia.

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