News Article | August 22, 2016
Lateral photonic integration of oxide-confined leaky vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers enables their application in data communications and sensing. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that operate at 850nm and are based on oxide-confined apertures are widely used in optical interconnects in data centers, supercomputers, wireless backbone networks, and consumer applications.1 As the processor productivity in these applications increases, it is necessary to continuously improve performance and scale transmission speeds accordingly. In recent years, developers have produced a generation of devices capable of transmitting 40Gb/s at moderate current densities,2, 3 and they have recently demonstrated 54Gb/s non-return-to-zero transmission through 2.2km of multimode fiber.4 Now, 108Gb/s per wavelength transmission can be realized over 100–300m of multimode fiber through the use of advanced modulation formats: discrete multi-tone,5 multiCAP,6 and PAM4.7 All of these achievements are made possible through the use of VCSELs operating in a single transverse and longitudinal mode (SM VCSELs). When manufacturing SM VCSELs, developers typically make the oxide aperture in a VCSEL very small (around 2–3μm in diameter). This approach, however, may result in very low optical power, high resistance, and low manufacturing yield. To extend single-mode behavior toward more conventional aperture sizes (5–7μm), several alternative approaches have been proposed, including surface patterning, etching, overgrowth, and ion implantation in combination with photonic crystals.8, 9 These approaches require additional processing steps that must be precisely aligned (oxide aperture and surface pattern). The resulting complexity can reduce the yield and increase the cost of manufacturing. Our approach uses oxide-confined leaky VCSELs, which—through the application of proper epitaxial design—enable the generation of high optical leakage losses for high-order transverse modes. Using these devices, we extend the single-mode behavior of the laser toward large oxide aperture diameters. With our approach, we aim to create an additional cavity at a wavelength longer than the VCSEL cavity mode. Upon oxidation, the relative intensity distribution of the optical field between the coupled cavities can be strongly affected in the oxidized section. This induces a break in the orthogonality of the VCSEL mode and the second cavity mode (when at a certain tilt angle), which enables in-plane leakage to occur. High-order modes with the field intensity maxima close to the oxide periphery have thus much higher leakage losses.10 We have designed and manufactured oxide-confined leaky VCSELs and observed their leakage process through tilted narrow lobes in the far-field spectrum. The emission comes from the area outside the aperture, and thus does not suffer from diffraction-induced broadening. To model the VCSELs in 3D, we applied finite element analysis based on Maxwell's vector equations in a rotational symmetric system.11 Figure 1 shows a cross section of the simulated electric field of the fundamental and first excited optical modes of an oxide-confined aluminum gallium arsenide-based leaky VCSEL. A simulated far-field profile of the excited mode can be seen in Figure 2. The simulations show that the leakage effect results in a specific tilted emission over the VCSEL surface at ∼35–37°. Most of the intensity of the leaking light is channeled in the direction parallel to the surface. Figure 1. Radial distribution of the simulated electric field of oxide-confined leaky vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) optical modes. (a) Fundamental optical mode. (b) First excited mode. An active region (magenta line) placed within the cavity is confined by aluminum gallium arsenide distributed Bragg reflectors. The structure contains oxide apertures (white lines). A semiconductor-air interface is shown as a dotted line in the figure. arb. u.: Arbitrary units. Figure 2. Far-field profile simulation of the excited VCSEL mode presented in Figure 1. We manufactured and tested VCSELs according to our design. The far-field measurements of the devices at two current densities can be seen in Figure 3, which shows that at high current densities during multimode operation, narrow lobes arise at ∼35° angles. These lobes are related to the leakage process (see Figure 2). Figure 3. Far-field profiles of a leaky VCSEL operating in fundamental mode (blue, 10kA/cm2) and multi-mode (red, >25kA/cm2). Electroluminescence spectra of the leaky VCSEL at different current densities are shown in Figure 4. We concluded that the VCSEL was predominantly single mode at all the current densities examined, despite the relatively large aperture diameter (5μm). In contrast, the non-leaky VCSEL with thick oxide apertures was heavily multimode, with the excited modes dominant even at small current densities.12 Figure 4. Electroluminescence spectra of an oxide leaky VCSEL with a 5μm aperture. The graph shows dominance of the fundamental mode up to high currents (5.5mA, red). Insert: An optical eye diagram (PRBS7) at 32Gb/s. To summarize, we have shown that it is possible to significantly improve VCSEL spectral quality without involving any additional processing steps. Furthermore, we confirmed the occurrence of in-plane leakage through leakage lobes in the far-field profile of the device. Our findings create opportunities for engineering photonic integrated circuits, for example, by coherent coupling of two or more devices. Therefore, it may be possible to use the technique for beam steering.13 By operating one VCSEL in a couple under reverse bias, it is possible to realize an on-chip integrated monitor photodiode, thus drastically reducing the cost of packaging (since fewer of the elements require alignment and assembly). Our future work will focus on optimization of the leakage effect in order to manufacture high- power and high-speed single-mode VCSELs. This project received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant 666866. VI Systems GmbH Nikolay Ledentsov Jr. received his MSc in physics at the Technical University of Berlin while developing indium gallium arsenide-based LEDs. At VI Systems he is responsible for the design and numerical simulation of optoelectronic devices, and operates an automated testbed for spectral and high-speed characterization. Vitaly Shchukin received a diploma in physics and engineering in the field of semiconductor physics from St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg, Russia, and a PhD (1987) and doctor of science (1999) in physics and mathematics from the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. He is co-author of more than 190 published papers, and holds 22 patents and a monograph. Joerg Kropp holds a doctor of science in the field of atomic physics with optical spectroscopy and laser applications. He has more than 25 years' experience in industry in the field of optical communications through management positions with Siemens and Infineon. Mikel Agustin received a diploma in telecommunications engineering from the Public University of Navarra, Spain, and completed his education at the Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. At VI Systems he is responsible for developing energy-efficient ultrafast vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors. Nikolay N. Ledentsov received a diploma in electrical engineering from the Electrical Engineering Institute in Leningrad (LETI, now Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg, Russia) in 1982. He obtained his PhD (1987) and doctor of science (1994) in physics and mathematics from the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute. He has been professor of electrical engineering at LETI since 1994 and professor of physics and mathematics at the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute since 2005. 1. T. R. Fanning, J. Wang, Z.-W. Feng, M. Keever, C. Chu, A. Sridhara, C. Rigo, et al., 28-Gbps 850-nm oxide VCSEL development and manufacturing progress at Avago, Proc. SPIE 9001, p. 900102, 2014. doi:10.1117/12.2039499 3. S. A. Blokhin, J. A. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. N. Ledentsov, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, 850nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40Gbit/s, Electron. Lett. 45, p. 501-503, 2009. 4. G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, J. P. Turkiewicz, 54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single-mode VCSEL up to 2.2km MMF, Electron. Lett. 52, p. 633-635, 2016. 5. B. Wu, X. Zhou, Y. Ma, J. Luo, K. Zhong, S. Qiu, Z. Feng, et al., Close to 100 Gbps discrete multitone transmission over 100m of multimode fiber using a single transverse mode 850nm VCSEL, Proc. SPIE 9766, p. 97660K, 2016. doi:10.1117/12.2208901 6. R. Puerta, M. Agustin, L. Chorchos, J. Tonski, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, et al., 107.5Gb/s 850nm multi- and single-mode VCSEL transmission over 10 and 100m of multi-mode fiber, OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Th5B, p. Th5B.5, 2016. 7. G. Stepniak, L. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, Up to 108Gb/s PAM 850nm multi and single mode VCSEL transmission over 100m of multi mode fiber, 2016. Paper accepted at the 42nd Euro. Conf. Opt. Commun. in Düsseldorf, 18-22 September 2016. 8. E. Haglund, A. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, B. Kögel, P. Westbergh, A. Larsson, Reducing the spectral width of high speed oxide confined VCSELs using an integrated mode filter, Proc. SPIE 8276, p. 82760L, 2012. doi:10.1117/12.908424 10. V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, Single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide-aperture-engineering of leakage of high-order transverse modes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, p. 990-995, 2014. 11. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide-confined vertical cavity lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, p. 1-7, 2016. 12. N. N. Ledentsov, J. Xu, J. A. Lott, Future Trends in Microelectronics: Frontiers and Innovations, ch. Ultrafast nanophotonic devices for optical interconnects, Wiley, 2013. doi:10.1002/9781118678107.ch11
Markov A.,Jülich Research Center |
Hollmann E.,Jülich Research Center |
Tumarkin A.,Electrotechnical University |
Kozyrev A.,Electrotechnical University |
Wordenweber R.,Jülich Research Center
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2015
Engineering of a frequency dependent permittivity can be of interest for various sensor application. In this work a strong modification of the frequency dependence of the ferroelectric properties is achieved via a controlled diffusion of the metal electrode (Pt) into the ferroelectric layer ((Ba,Sr)TiO3). For this purpose a series of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 layers is deposited onto Pt coated sapphire at various temperatures range from 660 °C to 760 °C. Using an additional Pt top electrode, the electronic properties of the resulting capacitors are investigated via frequency dependent cryoelectronic measurements. The structure and stoichiometry of the layers are analyzed via X-ray and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, respectively. The analysis of the permittivity and loss tangent shows a strong frequency dependence of the permittivity in a small region of the deposition temperatures (680-710 °C), i.e. the permittivity changes from εeff≃600 at low frequency to εeff≃20 at high frequency. This behavior is caused by a partial diffusion of Pt into the ferroelectric layer and can be explained by the Maxwell-Wagner model. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Popov M.,Oakland University |
Popov M.,Taras Shevchenko National University |
Zavislyak I.,Oakland University |
Zavislyak I.,Taras Shevchenko National University |
And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics | Year: 2011
Magnetic and dielectric resonances in the sub-terahertz (sub-THz) frequency range are observed in pure and Al-substituted hexagonal barium ferrite. A resonator based on magnetic excitations has been fabricated and its performance characteristics have been studied. The possible use of the resonator at sub-THz frequencies has been demonstrated. The resonator exhibited a loaded Q-factor of 150330 in the frequency range 97108 GHz. Dielectric resonances in a single-crystal barium hexaferrite are observed in the frequency range 75110 GHz. The modes excited by circularly polarized electromagnetic waves show nonreciprocal propagation characteristics. The dielectric resonances may occur at a much higher frequency than ferromagnetic resonance. It is shown that degeneracy in the dielectric modes is lifted with an applied magnetic field H and that the modes can be tuned by 10 GHz or more with H. Data on frequencies of the modes versus H shows hysteresis. Theoretical predictions on H-tuning characteristics of the principal dielectric E11δ mode are in agreement with the data. The dielectric modes are of importance for the realization of low-loss devices, including resonators, isolators and phase shifters. © 2006 IEEE.
Rot D.,University of West Bohemia |
Jirinec S.,University of West Bohemia |
Jirinec J.,University of West Bohemia |
Kozeny J.,University of West Bohemia |
Poznyak I.,Electrotechnical University
Proceedings - 2016 17th International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering, EPE 2016 | Year: 2016
Our task described in this paper is to prepare own experimental and innovative design of the cold crucibles. The measuring system which we created in our laboratory allows us an accurate evaluation of power losses. Due to measured power losses we are able to determine exact efficiency of induction system and verify previously prepared numerical simulations. Specifically, here we introduce two experimental designs. The first one is segmented cold crucible of copper tubes with drilled bottom and 3D printed collector of ABS (akrylonitrilbutadienstyren) for cooling water distributed to the tubes. The second one is milled cold crucible from one piece of solid copper cylinder with implemented 3D printed ABS collector for cooling the crucible. The function samples have been developed for use in our laboratory and for verification of numerical models, including testing of measuring system intended for our new laboratory of the cold crucible in the project SUSEN. © 2016 IEEE.
Kanareykin A.,Euclid Techlabs LLC |
Kazakov S.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory |
Kozyrev A.,Electrotechnical University |
Nenasheva E.,Ceramics Ltd. |
Yakovlev V.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
IPAC 2013: Proceedings of the 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2013
With this paper, we present our recent results with a new fast ferroelectric tuner development. The tuner is based on BST(M) ferroelectric elements (ε∼150), which are designed to be used as the basis for L-band accelerator components intended for ERL, ILC, Project X and other applications. These new ferroelectric elements are to be fabricated for the new fast active tuner for SC cavities that can operate in air at low biasing DC fields. Specific features of ERL, ILC and Project X accelerator technology and challenges of the designs are high magnitude and phase stability of its operations. Mechanical vibrations, or microphonics affect the SRF resonator, while the ferroelectric tuners have shown extremely high tuning speed. We have demonstrated successful mitigation of the residual effects on the ferroelectric-metal interface along with the acceptable level of the overall loss factor of the tuner element. A new concepts of a phase shifter based on low dielectric constant ferroelectric elements, fabrication technology of these new BST(M) ferroelectric elements are presented. Copyright © 2013 by JACoW- cc Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC-BY-3.0).
Drobintseva A.O.,Electrotechnical University |
Kvetnoy I.M.,Electrotechnical University |
Krylova Y.S.,Electrotechnical University |
Polyakova V.O.,Electrotechnical University |
And 6 more authors.
2015 4th Forum Strategic Partnership of Universities and Enterprises of Hi-Tech Branches (Science. Education. Innovation) | Year: 2015
A review of the up-to-date methods of semiconductor colloidal quantum dots synthesis for application in biology and medicine as well as summary of sensors based on colloidal quantum dots and metal nanoparticles are presented. The principles of sensors interaction with biological objects are examined. © 2015 IEEE.
Nenasheva E.A.,GIRICOND Research Institute |
Kartenko N.F.,RAS Ioffe Physical - Technical Institute |
Gaidamaka I.M.,Saint Petersburg State Mining Institute |
Trubitsyna O.N.,Ceramics Co.Ltd |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2010
In this paper we report the influence of the composition and concentration of Mg-containing additions such as Mg2TiO4, MgO and a mixture of Mg2TiO4-MgO on ceramics based on a mixture of BaTiO3/SrTiO3. Phase relations, crystal structure, microstructures, microwave dielectric properties (ε, tan δ) and DC tunability have been studied over a wide range of frequencies. The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties has been measured as well. Among the compositions synthesized were low loss bulk ferroelectrics with dielectric constants in the range 150-800 and relatively high DC tunabilities (up to 1.49 under a DC electric field of 40 kV/cm). These materials can be used for high power tunable microwave devices. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Lebedev A.,RAS Ioffe Physical - Technical Institute |
Tairov Y.,Electrotechnical University
Journal of Crystal Growth | Year: 2014
Theoretical and experimental studies of the phenomenon of polytypism in silicon carbide obtained by the Lely method have been presented. It is shown that the elementary theory of polytypism can be built on the basis of very general considerations, taking into account the physical and chemical parameters of the growth process, as well as the steric factor and the possible symmetry of elementary clusters involved in the growth process. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Kaplun D.I.,Electrotechnical University |
Klionskiy D.M.,Electrotechnical University |
Voznesenskiy A.S.,Electrotechnical University |
Gulvanskiy V.V.,Electrotechnical University
2014 International Conference on Computer Technologies in Physical and Engineering Applications, ICCTPEA 2014 - Proceedings | Year: 2014
The paper presents a multichannel weighted overlap-add (WOLA) algorithm applied to sub-band signal processing in hydroacoustic monitoring tasks. WOLA is illustrated as a multichannel filter bank implementation in terms of block-by-block signal analysis using vector discrete Fourier transform. Software implementation in MATLAB is discussed and the computation times are provided. © 2014 IEEE.
Altmark A.,Electrotechnical University |
Kanareykin A.,Electrotechnical University
RuPAC 2012 Contributions to the Proceedings - 23rd Russian Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2012
The most critical issue of wakefield accelerating schemes is transformer ratio (maximum energy gain of the witness bunch/maximum energy loss of the drive bunch) which cannot exceed 2 in collinear wakefield accelerator with use of Gaussian bunches. We observe new scheme of wakefield acceleration in collinear two-channel waveguide, where accelerating field created by electron bunch with annular charge distribution passing in vacuum layer. This radiation is used for acceleration of witness beam which passing through central vacuum channel. These vacuum areas separated by dielectric tube. Transformer ratio for this scheme can be much greater than 2. The main problem of wakefield accelerators is transverse beam dynamics of the driver bunch, because of high value of its charge and low energy of the particles. We present results of the beam dynamics calculation of the annular drive beam by "macroparticle" method based on analytical expressions for Cerenkov radiation. The upgraded BBU-3000 code has been used for calculation of the beam dynamics in coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerating structures. It is shown that dynamics depends on radial and azimuthally structures of HEM modes excited by the drive beam there. Initial beam imperfections to the beam dynamics was carried out. Copyright © 2012 by the respective authors.