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Koehler A.V.,University of Melbourne | Spratt D.M.,CSIRO | Norton R.,Pathology Queensland | Warren S.,Royal Hobart HospitalTAS | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Since 1998, there have been six reported human cases of myositis in Australia, attributable to infection with the nematode Haycocknema perplexum. However, an unequivocal diagnosis of H. perplexum infection and associated disease has been seriously compromised by a lack of molecular markers for this nematode. Here, we report new cases of disseminated myositis in two male patients from the states of Queensland and Tasmania in Australia, respectively; genetically characterize the causative agent from each case; and, also establish a PCR-based sequencing approach as a tool to support the diagnosis of future cases and to underpin epidemiological studies. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Compton S.G.,University of Leeds | Ball A.D.,Electronic Microscope Unit | Collinson M.E.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Hayes P.,Natural History Museum in London | And 2 more authors.
Biology Letters | Year: 2010

Fig wasps and fig trees are mutually dependent, with each of the 800 or so species of fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) typically pollinated by a single species of fig wasp (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Molecular evidence suggests that the relationship existed over 65 Ma, during the Cretaceous. Here, we record the discovery of the oldest known fossil fig wasps, from England, dated at 34 Ma. They possess pollen pockets that contain fossil Ficus pollen. The length of their ovipositors indicates that their host trees had a dioecious breeding system. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the fossil female fig wasps, and more recent species from Miocene Dominican amber, display the same suite of anatomical characters associated with fig entry and pollen-carrying as modern species. The pollen is also typical of modern Ficus. No innovations in the relationship are discernible for the last tens of millions of years. © 2010 The Royal Society.

O'Grady G.L.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | O'Grady G.L.,University of Sydney | Best H.A.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | Best H.A.,University of Sydney | And 16 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Variants in ACTA1, which encodes α-skeletal actin, cause several congenital myopathies, most commonly nemaline myopathy. Autosomal recessive variants comprise approximately 10% of ACTA1 myopathy. All recessive variants reported to date have resulted in loss of skeletal α-actin expression from muscle and severe weakness from birth. Targeted next-generation sequencing in two brothers with congenital muscular dystrophy with rigid spine revealed homozygous missense variants in ACTA1. Skeletal α-actin expression was preserved in these patients. This report expands the clinical and histological phenotype of ACTA1 disease to include congenital muscular dystrophy with rigid spine and dystrophic features on muscle biopsy. This represents a new class of recessive ACTA1 variants, which do not abolish protein expression. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Abd El-Sadek M.S.,Anna University | Kumar J.R.,Anna University | Babu S.M.,Anna University | El-Hamidy M.S.,Electronic Microscope Unit
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2010

Multi-functional CdTe@Mn(OH)2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by a seed-mediated growth approach. Initially, CdTe nanocrystals were synthesized with bi-functional molecule mercaptoacetic acid as a stabilizer. The Mn2+ in the form of MnCl2 was added to CdTe nanocrystals in aqueous solution and slowly hydrolyzed to deposit a layer of hydroxide (Mn(OH)2) onto the luminescent CdTe nanocrystals as a core in the presence of stabilizer at pH ≈ 11.2. The effect of refluxing time and the concentration of Mn2+ on the optical properties of these samples were evaluated using UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence analysis. The emission peak of the (CdTe@Mn(OH)2) composite nanoparticles shifted to 640 nm from 605 nm (CdTe seed). The sizes of CdTe and CdTe@Mn(OH)2 composite nanoparticles averaged about 3.22 nm and 7.94 nm respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Candresse T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Candresse T.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Filloux D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Muhire B.,University of Cape Town | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Comprehensive inventories of plant viral diversity are essential for effective quarantine and sanitation efforts. The safety of regulated plant material exchanges presently relies heavily on techniques such as PCR or nucleic acid hybridisation, which are only suited to the detection and characterisation of specific, well characterised pathogens. Here, we demonstrate the utility of sequence-independent next generation sequencing (NGS) of both virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA) for the detailed identification and characterisation of viruses infecting two quarantined sugarcane plants. Both plants originated from Egypt and were known to be infected with Sugarcane streak Egypt Virus (SSEV; Genus Mastrevirus, Family Geminiviridae), but were revealed by the NGS approaches to also be infected by a second highly divergent mastrevirus, here named Sugarcane white streak Virus (SWSV). This novel virus had escaped detection by all routine quarantine detection assays and was found to also be present in sugarcane plants originating from Sudan. Complete SWSV genomes were cloned and sequenced from six plants and all were found to share >91% genome-wide identity. With the exception of two SWSV variants, which potentially express unusually large RepA proteins, the SWSV isolates display genome characteristics very typical to those of all other previously described mastreviruses. An analysis of virus-derived siRNAs for SWSV and SSEV showed them to be strongly influenced by secondary structures within both genomic single stranded DNA and mRNA transcripts. In addition, the distribution of siRNA size frequencies indicates that these mastreviruses are likely subject to both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Our study stresses the potential advantages of NGS-based virus metagenomic screening in a plant quarantine setting and indicates that such techniques could dramatically reduce the numbers of non-intercepted virus pathogens passing through plant quarantine stations. © 2014 Candresse et al.

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