Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.

Santa Clara, CA, United States

Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.

Santa Clara, CA, United States

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Kanapady R.,MSCworks Inc | Moore D.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Raghupathy A.P.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Maltz W.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
Proceedings of the 15th InterSociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, ITherm 2016 | Year: 2016

In the current work, numerical evaluation of phase change material along with experimental validation of the same in a handheld device is presented. The value addition and driving force towards the use of phase change material (PCM) is not only due to limited heat dissipation capability and computational sprinting power load patterns in processors but also to have better user experiences of these hand held devices such as low touch temperatures, no fan noise and possibility of extended battery life by reducing the discharge cycles without fan loads. Direct placement of PCMs on the die or encapsulating the heat pipe, that has the quickest response to temperatures as a passive thermal management strategy is explored in this study. This paper proposes an accurate phase change model for transient thermal management using COMSOL Multiphysics®software. Impact of geometry of PCM material and its properties on the transient behavior of the CPU's temperature is provided. The model validations are carried out by comparing the results with controlled experimental results. The PCM material and their material properties are being provided by Outlast Technologies. © 2016 IEEE.


Kanapady R.,MSCWorks Inc | Moore D.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Raghupathy A.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Maltz W.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
Proceedings of the 15th InterSociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, ITherm 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper, influence of temperature gradient in interconnects due to Joule heating in 3D packaging on electromigration failure is presented. Black's Mean Time to Failure (MTF) model relates exponentially to the temperature of interconnects which is assumed to be constant hence does not take into account temperature gradient. The developed electromigration model incorporates the driving force due to temperature gradient in addition to the effects of current density, vacancy concentration gradients and stress gradients in the interconnects and due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch with surrounding materials. Effectiveness of the developed finite element model is illustrated complex C4 solder bumps of flip-chip packages using COMSOL Mutliphysics software. It is shown that for same current density in the complex C4 solder bumps of flip-chip packages it is possible that failure times could be lower for lower solder average temperature with higher temperature gradient than for higher solder temperature with low temperature gradient. © 2016 IEEE.


Litvinovitch V.,BAE Systems | Wang P.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Bar-Cohen A.,University of Maryland University College
IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies | Year: 2010

Proposed uses of solid-state thermoelectric microcoolers for hot spot remediation have included the formation of a superlattice layer on the back of the microprocessor chip, but there have been few studies on the cooling performance of such devices. This paper provides the results of 3-D, electrothermal, finite element modeling of a superlattice microcooler, focusing on the hot spot temperature and superlattice surface temperature reductions, respectively. Simulated temperature distributions and heat flow patterns in the silicon, associated with variations in microcooler geometry, chip thickness, hot spot size, hot spot heat flux, and superlattice thickness are provided. Comparison is made to hot spot cooling achieved by the Peltier effect in the silicon microprocessor chip itself. The numerical results suggest that, for a variety of operating conditions and geometries, while increasing the superlattice thickness serves to decrease the exposed superlattice surface temperature, it is ineffective in reducing the hot spot temperature below that due to the silicon Peltier effect. © 2006 IEEE.


Raghupathy A.P.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Shen J.,Ericsson AB
Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium | Year: 2010

The current work presents a comparative study of industry-wide practice of modeling opto-electronic packages for their thermal analysis, with a focus on the DELPHI-type model. A single opto-electronic package that has a representative construction of other types of opto-electronic packages is chosen for this study. This package is Small-Form Factor Pluggable device, commonly referred to as the SFP. Based on the required level of accuracy and computational resources consumed, the SFP is modeled using one of the following techniques; a lumped system of fixed thermal conductivity, a two-resistor network model, a multi-resistor DELPHI-type network model and a detailed geometrical model. In the current study, these modeling techniques are studied in a comparative mode. The performances of the different models are compared to a validated detailed model. Boundary conditions used for comparing the different models with the detailed model is decided based on practical situations commonly encountered by SFPs in system-level models. The practical situations also include cage-level installation of the SFPs. In addition to presenting the performance of each modeling technique with respect to the detailed model, discussion on their advantages and limitations are also included in this paper. ©2010 IEEE.


Shen J.,Ericsson AB | Raghupathy A.P.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium | Year: 2010

Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) transceivers are commonly used in fiber optics based networks. Detailed CFD model demands a lot of mesh counts and is computationally prohibitive in system and board level simulations. In the present study, detailed SFP models have been simulated at 24 different boundary conditions consisted of four system airflow velocities, three power dissipations and two PCB board thermal conductivities. A two-resistor compact model has been derived based on the simulated heat fluxes and case temperatures of detailed SFP models. The case temperatures simulated from two-resistor model are benchmarked to the results from detailed SFP model. The two-resistor model has been compared with detailed SFP and DELPHI models strictly under the same condition. It has been shown with consistent accuracy. The advantages of using this model lie on modeling simplicity requiring the least grid resolution, easy scalability to different power dissipations, and great compatibility of various SFP packages. The limitations of two-resistor model are discussed at the end. ©2010 IEEE.


Wagner G.R.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Maltz W.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
ASME 2013 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems, InterPACK 2013 | Year: 2013

Handheld devices are increasingly capable of running applications that used to require laptop and desktop computers. The requirement that these devices provide better performance with a smaller form factor or size presents significant challenges, especially with the limitations of passive cooling. The current study presents a summary of the cooling solutions of several popular, commercially available tablets. The trends in power dissipation and thermal management techniques of handheld devices are presented. The factors affecting the maximum possible power dissipation are discussed. The effects of the selection of the outer shell materials, the thermal interface materials, heat spreaders and air gaps are presented. For all considered thermal management techniques of handheld devices, a figure of merit for the cooling solutions is defined as: Figure of Merit = Maximum Power Dissipation / Surface Temperature Rise, in (W/degC). This figure of merit allows for an objective comparison of the available cooling solutions. © 2014 ASME.


Romero A.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Kipp S.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
InterSociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, ITHERM | Year: 2012

Eight high-power QSFP modules were modeled using Flotherm to determine the thermal requirements to keep the module case temperature below 70°C with 40°C air at 3 Km elevation. A detailed model for the QSFP, cage and air channel were used to determine the heat sink solution and airflow required to cool two - 1x4 QSFP cages, with each QSFP dissipating 5 Watts. Different heat sinks, baffles and airflow conditions were evaluated. Factors like contact resistance between the case and the heat sink, heat sink base heat spreading and effect of airflow bypass were investigated. The two factors that affected the module case temperature the most were the airflow through the heatsink and the contact resistance between the module and the heatsink. © 2012 IEEE.


Raghupathy A.P.,University of Cincinnati | Ghia U.,University of Cincinnati | Ghia K.,University of Cincinnati | Maltz W.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
Journal of Heat Transfer | Year: 2010

This technical note presents an introduction to boundary-condition-independent reduced-order modeling of complex electronic components using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-Galerkin approach. The current work focuses on how the POD methodology can be used along with the finite volume method to generate reduced-order models that are independent of their boundary conditions. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for the transient 1D heat equation, and preliminary results are presented. © 2010 by ASME.


Nagendran B.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Raghupathy A.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Maltz W.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium | Year: 2015

Handheld devices with computing capabilities that match laptops and desktops have recently emerged as market drivers in the consumer electronics industry. To accommodate such high performance in small form-factors like that of a tablet is a thermal management challenge. In touch-interactive electronics devices like tablets, skin temperature is as important as the processor temperature. Cooling by natural convection alone is insufficient to address the higher power density found in this class of high-performance tablet. Therefore, these devices require forced convection solutions. This study presents the thermal management challenges of a forced convection tablet using experimental and computational techniques. One such thermal challenge stems from the blower speed versus ergonomic requirements of acoustics. To understand more about this relation, the tablet is experimentally characterized for acoustics for several controlled blower speeds. The tablet is also characterized using airflow bench tests, infrared thermography and thermocouple measurements. The system-level thermal model of the tablet is constructed using FloTHERM XT®. The validated model serves as a test vehicle to study alternate thermal management strategies and understand their impact on the overall product design. © 2015 IEEE.


Raghupathy A.P.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc. | Ghia U.,University of Cincinnati | Ghia K.,University of Cincinnati | Maltz W.,Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies | Year: 2010

The objective of the current work is to introduce the concept of boundary-condition-independent (BCI) reduced-order modeling (ROM) for complex electronic packages by employing the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-Galerkin methodology. Detailed models of complex electronic packages that consume large computational resources are used within system-level models in computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based heat transfer analysis. If a package-level model that reduces computational resources (reduced-order model) and provides accurate results in many different flow situations (boundary-condition-independent model) can be deployed, it will accelerate the design and analysis of the end products that make use of these packages. This paper focuses on how the proper orthogonal decomposition-Galerkin methodology can be used with the finite volume method (FVM) to generate reduced-order models that are boundary-condition-independent. This method is successfully used in the present study to generate boundary-condition-independent reduced-order models for 1-D and 2-D objects for isothermal and isoflux boundary conditions. Successful implementation of the method is also shown on 2-D objects made of multiple materials and multiple heat generating sources for isoflux boundary conditions. © 2006 IEEE.

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