Nicosia, Cyprus

The Electricity Authority of Cyprus ), whose head office is located in Strovolos, currently holds a near monopoly on electricity generation in Cyprus. It operates through three power stations with a total capacity of 1460MW: Dhekelia Power Station - 460MW Moni Power Station - 140MW + 125MW in storage Vasilikos Power Station - 860MWThe company also distributes electricity produced by four privately held windfarms: Orites - 82MW Santa Anna - 20MW Alexigros - 31.5MW Koshi - 10.8MWAdditionally, individuals and private companies own more than 30MW of solar panels and almost 10MW of biofuel installations and the EAC distributes the electricity these produce too.In 2012, the EAC generated a total of 4,443GWh of electricity consuming 1,109,371 tonnes of fuel costing €645,049,000. Maximum demand in the areas controlled by the Republic of Cyprus reached 997MW. A total of 7.0GWh of the produced electricity in 2012 valued €1,395,000 ended up in the area occupied by Turkey and no money could be collected for it.The Authority served 548,498 customers in 2012, that is 242 per employee, up from 229 in 2011. The electricity sales per employee reached 1.92GWh, down from 1.94GWh in 2011.Company investments in 2012 on its assets reached €99,863,000, thus exceeding the net profit by more than €22,000,000.On 11 July 2011, a total of 98 containers of munitions stored at Evangelos Florakis Naval Base adjacent to Vasilikos Power Station exploded. The huge explosion caused extensive damage to the station. To cope with the extended loss of its largest power station, the Authority had to impose rolling blackouts. Christofias, who was responsible for the destruction, has yet to face punishment.As a precondition to the accession of Cyprus to the European Union, the local market for electricity generation has been opened to private companies, but so far no private power plants have been built, although four licenses have been granted by Cyprus Energy Regulation Authority. In the meanwhile, the EAC diversified into communication and cable television services in cooperation with a private company.In 2005, the company was involved in a high profile scandal involving the alleged theft of millions of Cyprus pounds from the employees' pension scheme. Wikipedia.

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Petoussis A.G.,University of Warwick | Zhang X.-P.,University of Birmingham | Petoussis S.G.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Godfrey K.R.,University of Warwick
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2013

The linear supply function equilibrium (SFE) model can be used to investigate bid-based electricity pool markets. Several studies assume that the market players construct optimal strategic bids by parameterizing the linear marginal cost function of their generating units. Four different types of parameterization are possible, for which the slope and/or the intercept of the marginal cost functions are varied. This paper reviews the existing literature and proposes a primal-dual nonlinear interior point algorithm to solve a bi-level market problem with AC network representation, using any of the parameterization methods. Part II of this paper uses the proposed algorithm to examine the effects of the different parameterizations on the resulting SFE solutions, the role of network complexity and the nature of the equilibrium points. © 2012 IEEE.

Zachariadis T.,Cyprus University of Technology | Poullikkas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

We study the costs of electricity disruptions in Cyprus, which suffered severe power shortages in summer 2011 after an explosion that destroyed 60 % of its power generating capacity. We employ both economic and engineering approaches to assess these costs. Among other calculations, we provide estimates of the value of lost load by economic sector and the hourly value of electricity by season and type of day. The results of two economic methods employed to assess welfare losses differ largely, indicating that the assessment of outage costs is associated with many uncertainties. Our calculations show that the emergency actions taken by national energy authorities in response to that accident, though not necessarily optimal, have generally been appropriate and in line with international best practices: the additional costs incurred due to these measures are lower than the economic losses avoided thanks to these actions. Preferential treatment of specific consumer types in the case of repeated power outages remains an open policy question. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Patsalides M.,University of Cyprus | Stavrou A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Efthymiou V.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Georghiou G.E.,University of Cyprus
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2012

The solar irradiance dependent level of harmonic distortion due to PV generation is investigated through a combination of experimental and simulation studies. The expected growth of connection densities of PV systems in distribution networks coupled to the environmental conditions and in particular the fluctuations in solar irradiance can lead to undesirable variations of power and supply quality. In order to be able to predict the harmonic pollution due to PV generation, measurements of power quality indices were carried out at the output of a PV system for a period of 2 weeks. Then, a typical distribution system was modeled using the statistically obtained outcome of the measurements from the PV system. From the simulation of the chosen distribution system we obtained results for voltage distortion and categorized them based on solar irradiance levels. The procedure was then validated using the EN50160 analysis approach. The most extreme case, the high solar irradiance condition, was subsequently used for the simulation of different concentration scenarios, in order to assess the concentration limits set by power quality indices and the results are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Poullikkas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus
Desalination | Year: 2010

In this work, an optimization model using a genetic algorithm technique is developed for the desalinated water production cost using photovoltaics (PVs). In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method a parametric study is carried out for the optimum reverse osmosis (RO) desalinated water cost. In particular, taking into account various RO plant capacities the desalinated water cost have been determined for various scenarios from which the requirements in electrical energy are covered partly (25%, 50%, 75%) and/or fully (100%) from PVs. Based on the data and the assumptions used, the results indicate that the production cost of desalinated water is increased with the degree of integration of PVs for partial and/or total electricity requirements of the RO plant. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Poullikkas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Kourtis G.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Hadjipaschalis I.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of solar dish technologies for power generation in Mediterranean regions is economically feasible. The study takes into account the available solar potential for a typical Mediterranean country, such as Cyprus, as well as all available data concerning the current renewable energy sources policy of the island, including the relevant feed-in tariff of 0.26/kWh. In order to identify the least cost feasible option for the installation of the solar dish plant a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying the solar dish plant capacity, the solar dish plant capital investment and the CO2 emissions trading scheme price. The results indicated that the installation of solar dish plants in Mediterranean regions is economically feasible only in some cases, when a feed-in tariff incentive scheme exists, and that the size and the capital cost of the solar dish power plant are critical parameters affecting the economic viability of the technology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kellas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus
IET Conference Publications | Year: 2012

The development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge long-term benefits. It will increase the energy security of countries through reliance on an indigenous and import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence, the additional cost of the incentives for early utilization should be considered learning investment Solar power technologies are divided into two main groups: -PV power plants using photovoltaic modules to convert solar radiation directly into electricity -solar thermal power plants generating electricity indirectly by means of intermediate conversion into heat and mechanical energy. The Electricity Authority of Cyprus, which generates almost the whole requirements of the island in electrical energy, is promoting the installation of renewable energy projects on the island and this paper will describe two of these solar energy projects. The first one is a photovoltaic plant aiming in covering the parking area of Larnaca International Airport, with PV panels, which will provide electrical energy for the airport and also shade for the cars. The second project is the construction and operation of a 50MW concentrated solar plant with thermal storage to be located in the Akrotiri peninsula, in the Limassol district.

Poullikkas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Poullikkas A.,American University of Sharjah
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments | Year: 2013

In this work, a comparative assessment of net metering vs. feed-in-tariff (FiT) supporting schemes for residential PV systems is carried out. A formulation for the computation of net metering supporting scheme parameters, in half hour intervals, is developed and typical household integrated with a rooftop PV system is investigated. The effect of the size of PV system with respect to the net metering supporting scheme is examined by varying the PV capacity and the effect of the electricity retail cost rate is investigated by varying the electricity retail cost rate. The comparative results indicate that net metering supporting scheme performs better than a FiT supporting scheme when the household electricity bill is taken into account. From the analysis it is clear that under certain conditions net metering supporting scheme becomes profitable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Poullikkas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

In this work, an overview of the different types of batteries used for large-scale electricity storage is carried out. In particular, the current operational large-scale battery energy storage systems around the world with their applications are identified and a comparison between the different types of batteries, as well as with other types of large-scale energy storage systems, is presented. The analysis has shown that the largest battery energy storage systems use sodium-sulfur batteries, whereas the flow batteries and especially the vanadium redox flow batteries are used for smaller battery energy storage systems. The battery electricity storage systems are mainly used as ancillary services or for supporting the large scale solar and wind integration in the existing power system, by providing grid stabilization, frequency regulation and wind and solar energy smoothing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Poullikkas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Kourtis G.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Hadjipaschalis I.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

The main purpose of this work is to assess the unavoidable increase in the cost of electricity of a generation system by the integration of the necessary renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) technologies in order for the European Union Member States to achieve their national RES energy target. The optimization model developed uses a genetic algorithm (GA) technique for the calculation of both the additional cost of electricity due to the penetration of RES-E technologies as well as the required RES-E levy in the electricity bills in order to fund this RES-E penetration. Also, the procedure enables the estimation of the optimum feed-in-tariff to be offered to future RES-E systems. Also, the overall cost increase in the electricity sector for the promotion of RES-E technologies, for the period 2010-2020, is analyzed taking into account factors, such as, the fuel avoidance cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance cost, the conventional power system increased operation cost, etc. The overall results indicate that in the case of RES-E investments with internal rate of return (IRR) of 10% the cost of integration is higher, compared to RES-E investments with no profit, (i.e., IRR at 0%) by 0.3-0.5. €c/kWh (in real prices), depending on the RES-E penetration level. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Poullikkas A.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Hadjipaschalis I.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus | Kourtis G.,Electricity Authority of Cyprus
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

In this work, a technical and economic analysis concerning the integration of parabolic trough concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies, with or without thermal storage capability, in an existing typical small isolated Mediterranean power generation system, in the absence of a feed-in tariff scheme, is carried out. In addition to the business as usual (BAU) scenario, five more scenarios are examined in the analysis in order to assess the electricity unit cost with the penetration of parabolic trough CSP plants of 50 MWe or 100 MWe, with or without thermal storage capability. Based on the input data and assumptions made, the simulations indicated that the scenario with the utilization of a single parabolic trough CSP plant (either 50 MWe or 100 MWe and with or without thermal storage capability) in combination with BAU will effect an insignificant change in the electricity unit cost of the generation system compared to the BAU scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis on natural gas price, showed that increasing fuel prices and the existence of thermal storage capability in the CSP plant make this scenario marginally more economically attractive compared to the BAU scenario. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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