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Maputo, Mozambique

Arthur M.D.F.S.R.,Electricidade de Mozambique | Bond C.A.,Colorado State University | Willson B.,Colorado State University
Energy Economics | Year: 2012

In Mozambique, households consume a mix of energy sources to satisfy their needs for lighting and cooking and, for wealthier households, other domestic necessities such as refrigeration. The domestic energy mix depends on the prices of the sources and on the capability of the household to invest in the energy-consuming appliances required to satisfy those needs. Based on data from a household survey carried out in Mozambique during 2002/3 (IAF), this paper calculates the price and the income elasticities of demand for domestic energy, using an econometric method developed by Deaton. The calculations are made for all households at the national level, differentiating for urban and rural households, and for the northern households of Mozambique. In the econometric formulation, proxies for the ownership of energy appliances per household are used, allowing a simple evaluation of the effects of asset ownership on the demand for energy. Own- and cross-price elasticities for five individual domestic sources are obtained: low-grade sources such as firewood and charcoal are less elastic (elasticities of -0.41 and -0.28 respectively) than candles, kerosene and electricity (respectively -0.88, -0.79 and -0.60).Income elasticities are respectively 0.45, 0.32, 0.93, 0.84 and 0.69, placing firewood and charcoal as the less responsive to income variations and candles and kerosene as the most responsive. We also comment on the factors influencing domestic energy transition. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Arthur M.D.F.S.R.,Electricidade de Mozambique | Zahran S.,Electricidade de Mozambique | Bucini G.,Electricidade de Mozambique
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

In Mozambique, domestic energy is often composed of a mix of sources, primarily used for lighting and cooking, with biomass and kerosene as more common sources. Electrification programs, intended to connect new consumers countrywide, have not significantly contributed either to the intensification of electricity consumption or to the reduction of the use of biomass in households. The choice of energy source is dependent on price and on the capability of the household to invest in energy-consuming appliances. Based on the data from a household survey carried out in Mozambique during 2002/03, this paper analyzes the geographic differences in unit expenditures for domestic energy and finds evidence of an inverted energy ladder with prices of useful energy units. The data show that biomass sources are often more expensive per unit of useful energy than higher-grade sources, supporting arguments favoring electrification as a poverty alleviation strategy. In addition, this study estimates the likelihood of poor households transitioning from biomass to electricity consumption based on various factors. Results indicate that income is not a determining factor in the transition, but wealth and the level of the Primary Energy Consumption Share (PECS) are as important factors as the nature of the energy mix. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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