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Jung J.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Onen A.,Abdullah Gül University | Russell K.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. | Broadwater R.P.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Both steady-state and quasi steady-state impact studies in high Photovoltaic (PV) penetration distribution circuits are presented. The steady-state analysis evaluates impacts on the distribution circuit by comparing conditions before and after extreme changes in PV generation at three extreme circuit conditions, maximum load, maximum PV generation, and when the difference between the PV generation and the circuit load is a maximum. The quasi steady-state study consists of a series of steady-state impact studies performed at evenly spaced time points for evaluating the spectrum of impacts between the extreme impacts. Results addressing the impacts of cloud cover and various power factor control strategies are presented. PV penetration levels are limited and depend upon PV generation control strategies. The steady state and quasi steady-state impact studies provide information that is helpful in evaluating the effect of PV generation on distribution circuits, including circuit problems that result from the PV generation. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Arghandeh R.,University of California at Berkeley | Woyak J.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. | Onen A.,Abdullah Gül University | Jung J.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Broadwater R.P.,Abdullah Gül University
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge/discharge scheduling of Community Energy Storage (CES) devices as well as an analysis of several of the key drivers of the optimization are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Arghandeh R.,United Environment & Energy, Llc | Onen A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Jung J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Cheng D.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2014

Phasor-based interdependencies of multiple harmonic sources, especially Distributed Energy Resources, on distribution networks are analyzed in this paper. A new index, Phasor Harmonic Index (IPH), is proposed by the authors. IPH considers both harmonic source magnitude and phase angle for different harmonic orders. Other commonly used harmonic indices are based solely on magnitude of waveforms. A very detailed model of a distribution network is used in the harmonic assessment. With the help of the detailed distribution network model, the phase couplings and the phase balancing impacts on harmonic propagation between three phases are investigated. Moreover, effects of harmonic source phase angle deviations are analyzed at both the customer side and the substation side. This paper investigates the importance of phase angles in harmonic assessment and how distribution network characteristics can be analyzed appropriately with phasor-based harmonic studies. In addition to device level harmonics, system level harmonic propagation need to be considered. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Dilek M.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. | De Leon F.,New York University | Broadwater R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Lee S.,Consolidated Edison Company of New York
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

This paper presents a sweep-based three-phase power flow method for solving general distribution networks that can be heavily meshed and include transformers around the meshes/loops. A load-stepping technique is proposed for solving common convergence problems of sweep-based load-flow solvers when dealing with overloaded radial sections. The proposed power-flow algorithm is based on the iterative solution of radial subsystems assembled together with the mesh equations to comply with Kirchhoff equations. The proposed method is robust and efficient for the solution of heavily loaded systems. Examples are presented for illustration. © 2010 IEEE.

Rahimi K.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Jain H.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Broadwater R.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc.
Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference | Year: 2016

In the last decades, generation and demand have been growing steadily. Transferring the new generation to load centers requires the expansion of transmission infrastructure. However, building new transmission lines is a long drawn and challenging process. Therefore, optimal use of transmission lines and increasing their transfer capacity are of interest to system operators. Lines congestion can affect transfer capacity of transmission lines and impose congestion costs to transmission system. This paper introduces the application of Distributed Series Reactors (DSR) in relieving lines congestion and consequently, congestion costs in power market. In the work here, two sets of Security Constrained Optimal Power flow (SCOPF) simulations were performed for different load levels; with and without employing DSR modules. Simulation results show that DSR modules can effectively relieve congestion costs when they are employed on congested transmission lines. © 2016 IEEE.

Nazir M.N.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Omran S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Broadwater R.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc.
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2016

Distributed Series Reactors (DSRs) can be used to control power flow to more fully utilize the capacity of a transmission network, delaying investment in new transmission lines. In this paper the IEEE 39 bus standard test system is modified to a 3-phase, unbalanced model consisting of 230 kV, 345 kV and 500 kV lines, where lines of different voltage run in parallel. This model is used to study load growth and the effect of adding DSRs to alleviate resulting overloads, and in particular to alleviate overloads on lines of different voltage running in parallel. The economic benefit of adding DSRs to the network is compared to the addition of new transmission lines in the network. In the second part of the paper the effect of unsymmetrical operation of DSRs on a single transmission line is studied and compared to the symmetrical operation of DSRs. It is found that unsymmetrical operation of DSRs is more economical. Finally the unsymmetrical operation of DSRs to reduce voltage imbalance in the network is considered. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Russell K.J.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. | Broadwater R.P.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new concept for automated reconfiguration control that is based on past model-based system analysis, load modeling and integrated system recovery analysis research and development. The approach uses a software based supervisory level control application that: (1) Monitors device level distribution protection device operation, (2) Generates isolation refinement and restoration switch operation lists using a model-based reconfiguration algorithm, and (3) Uses the switch operation list to remotely operate switches, reclosers and circuit breakers through Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) to speed up fault recovery actions and reduce the size of outaged areas. The paper provides an overview of the model-based analysis concepts used to implement the reconfiguration controller and analysis algorithm, and also discusses reconfiguration algorithm design and operation. © 2012 IEEE.

Hambrick J.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Broadwater R.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc.
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2011

Integrated system models based upon the generic programming paradigm and which include all fundamental problem domain objects are applied to electrical distribution system automation and control. The control architecture resulting from this approach is reviewed. Flexibility of design, topology independence, fail-safe operation, and robustness of algorithms are considered. © 2011 IFAC.

Jung J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Cho Y.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Cheng D.,Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. | Onen A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

This paper considers system effects due to the addition of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) and Distributed Energy Resource (DER) generation. The DER and PHEV are considered with energy storage technology applied to the residential distribution system load. Two future year scenarios are considered, 2020 and 2030. The models used are of real distribution circuits located near Detroit, Michigan, and every customer load on the circuit and type of customer are modeled. Monte Carlo simulations are used to randomly select customers that receive PHEV, DER, and/or storage systems. The Monte Carlo simulations provide not only the expected average result, but also its uncertainty. The adoption scenarios are investigated for both summer and winter loading conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 998.77K | Year: 2010

Competing cost, load growth, reliability, security and environmental issues are pushing power system design, operation and control to new levels of complexity. What is needed is a multidiscipline, multi-fidelity integrated analysis and information management approach that can be used to combine new technology together with legacy systems in a reliable and cost effective way. Risk assessment and simulation for renewable generation development is a good example of this type of problem. This problem will be addressed through development of a new model-based real-time renewable generation operations risk assessment analysis and mitigation system that will include live data links to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and web based state-of-the-art Photo Voltaic performance data services. The prototype system will be tested using existing integrated transmission and distribution models for a real power utility system. The system includes a significant level of Photo Voltaic (PV) sites and will be modeled to a level of detail that includes one-to-one correspondence with real system components, and all customer connections with 13 months of historical hourly load data. In addition to providing new risk monitoring and analysis capability, the system will be used to develop and test new PV performance and customer load forecasting, which is a significant source of renewable resource use uncertainty. Successful concept development and testing of Graph Trace Analysis Approach (GTA) based operations risk monitoring, mitigation and visualization using a test model and data. Develop and implement a prototype model-based operations management risk analysis, mitigation and visualization system that can be used either by itself or as part of an integrated smart grid solution. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The Graph Trace Analysis software to be used for the project is uniquely suited for development of a new renewable resource risk assessment approach that can be implemented as part of an integrated design, operation and control analysis and information management solution. GTA is currently being used by leading industry, academic and government research organizations to address complex system analysis and information management problems that previously could not be solved. The web based services that will be integrated with the new system is a leader in renewable resource monitoring and analysis. Combining capabilities from these to next generation type capabilities, and then refining them using real system data will significantly increase problem size, level of detail and complexity of renewable resource related analysis that can be performed for both design and real-time operations.

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