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Greenfield, IN, United States

The pathogens transmitted by ticks to human beings are a motive of public health concern around the world, such is the case of Lyme disease in the northern hemisphere, Encephalitis virus in Europe, the recurrent fevers and the Rocky Mountains spotted fever, better known in Colombia as "Tobia Fever". People of all economic and social conditions are prone to develop a zoonotic agent transmitted by these vectors, which could be infected by several pathogens through co-infection mechanisms. The epidemiology and prevalence of these diseases are affected by ecological, climatic and anthropogenic factors. All these factors, affect in a different manner the enzootic cycle between pathogens, ticks and wild hosts. Current molecular diagnostic tools have allowed to progress in pathogen identification, previously unknown or undetermined. The government intervention capacity of each country, and the multidisciplinary professional cooperation, especially from physicians and veterinarians, is fundamental in order to strategically implement control and prevention plans that can deal with this problematic. The present article aims to make a thorough review of the factors which are favoring the transmission of zoonotic agents by ticks, contextualizing the most important aspects that determine their prevalence, and the most relevant control and prevention measures.

Silley P.,MB Consult Ltd | Silley P.,University of Bradford | Simjee S.,Elanco Animal Health | Schwarz S.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2012

Surveillance and monitoring studies of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of human and animal origin and antimicrobial consumption in humans and animals have been conducted in various countries throughout the world. In the veterinary field, in particular, programmes have been installed which target bacteria of zoonotic, foodborne and/or veterinary relevance. Each year, the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project summarises and evaluates antimicrobial consumption in ambulatory and hospital care in many European countries. In contrast, antimicrobial consumption data in veterinary medicine are available from only a few countries and the type of information that is collected or reported varies. To address this challenge, the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project was launched by the European Medicines Agency in September 2009 and has just published its first report. This comparison of the different studies for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in humans and animals shows the need to improve harmonisation.

Schwarz S.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Silley P.,MB Consult Ltd | Silley P.,University of Bradford | Simjee S.,Elanco Animal Health | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

The accurate performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from animal sources and the correct presentation of the results is a complex matter. A review of the published literature revealed a number of recurring errors with regard to methodology, quality control, appropriate interpretive criteria, and calculation of MIC50 and MIC90 values. Although more subjective, there is also no consensus regarding the definition of multiresistance. This Editorial is intended to provide guidance to authors on how to avoid these frequently detected shortcomings. © The Author 2010.

Capper J.L.,Washington State University | Cady R.A.,Elanco Animal Health
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impact of Jersey or Holstein milk production sufficient to yield 500,000 t of cheese (equivalent cheese yield) both with and without recombinant bovine somatotropin use. The deterministic model used 2009 DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC) population data for milk yield and composition (Jersey: 20.9kg/d, 4.8% fat, 3.7% protein; Holstein: 29.1kg/d, 3.8% fat, 3.1% protein), age at first calving, calving interval, and culling rate. Each population contained lactating and dry cows, bulls, and herd replacements for which rations were formulated according to DairyPro (Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems, Cornell, Ithaca, NY) at breed-appropriate body weights (BW), with mature cows weighing 454kg (Jersey) or 680kg (Holstein). Resource inputs included feedstuffs, water, land, fertilizers, and fossil fuels. Waste outputs included manure and greenhouse gas emissions. Cheese yield (kg) was calculated according to the Van Slyke equation. A yield of 500,000 t of cheese required 4.94 billionkg of Holstein milk compared with 3.99 billionkg of Jersey milk-a direct consequence of differences in milk nutrient density (fat and protein contents) between the 2 populations. The reduced daily milk yield of Jersey cows increased the population size required to supply sufficient milk for the required cheese yield, but the differential in BW between the Jersey and Holstein breeds reduced the body mass of the Jersey population by 125×10 3 t. Consequently, the population energy requirement was reduced by 7,177×10 6MJ, water use by 252×10 9 L, and cropland use by 97.5×10 3 ha per 500,000 t of cheese yield. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion were reduced by 17,234 and 1,492 t, respectively, through the use of Jersey milk to yield 500,000 t of Cheddar cheese. The carbon footprint was reduced by 1,662×10 3 t of CO 2-equivalents per 500,000 t of cheese in Jersey cows compared with Holsteins. Use of recombinant bovine somatotropin reduced resource use and waste output in supplemented populations, with decreases in carbon footprint equivalent to 10.0% (Jersey) and 7.5% (Holstein) compared with nonsupplemented populations. The interaction between milk nutrient density and BW demonstrated by the Jersey population overcame the reduced daily milk yield, thus reducing resource use and environmental impact. This reduction was achieved through 2 mechanisms: diluting population maintenance overhead through improved milk nutrient density and reducing maintenance overhead through a reduction in productive and nonproductive body mass within the population. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Silley P.,MB Consult Ltd | Silley P.,University of Bradford | De Jong A.,Bayer AG | Simjee S.,Elanco Animal Health | Thomas V.,Intervet Innovation GmbH
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2011

Antimicrobial surveillance systems in Denmark (DANMAP), The Netherlands (MARAN), Spain (VAV) and Sweden (SVARM) as well as the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) were reviewed. Data have been considered for extended-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and macrolides against food-borne and commensal bacteria. The greatest challenge arises from the lack of agreement between programmes on what is meant by resistance through the use of different interpretive criteria. Indeed, it is shown here that the extent of the differences depends on the antibacterial compound being investigated, the methodology and the interpretive criteria used. This emphasises a need to agree a definition for resistance and for epidemiological cut-off values and to consider harmonising the antimicrobials used in surveillance. This analysis of the data highlights the usefulness of using both epidemiological cut-off values and clinical resistance breakpoints for the purpose of detection of decreased susceptibility and development of clinical resistance, respectively. It is concluded that harmonisation in resistance monitoring programmes is needed since there is potential for data to be appropriately used within risk analysis, providing the opportunity to implement appropriate risk management steps as a response to the public health issues arising from changes in antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and commensal organisms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.

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