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El Rosario University
Bogota, Colombia
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Anaya J.-M.,El Rosario University
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2012

The fact that autoimmune diseases share subphenotypes, physiopathological mechanisms and genetic factors has been called autoimmune tautology, and indicates that they have a common origin. The autoimmune phenotypes vary depending on the target cell and the affected organ, gender, ancestry, trigger factors and age at onset. Ten shared characteristics supporting this logical theory are herein reviewed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ramirez J.D.,El Rosario University | Llewellyn M.S.,University of Wales
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

The debate around the frequency and importance of genetic exchange in parasitic protozoa is now several decades old. Recently, fresh assertions have been made that predominant clonal evolution explains the population structures of several key protozoan pathogens. Here, we present an alternative perspective. On the assumption that much apparent clonality may be an artefact of inadequate sampling and study design, we review current research to define why sex might be so difficult to detect in protozoan parasite populations. In doing so, we contrast laboratory models of genetic exchange in parasitic protozoa with natural patterns of genetic diversity and consider the fitness advantage of sex at different evolutionary scales. We discuss approaches to improve the accuracy of efforts to characterize genetic exchange in the field. We also examine the implications of the first population genomic studies for the debate around sex and clonality in parasitic protozoa and discuss caveats for the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Anaya J.-M.,El Rosario University
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ordonez J.T.,El Rosario University
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2012

This paper addresses the structural vulnerability of Latin American undocumented day labourers in Northern California, as it is expressed in conversations on street corners where they wait for work. The intimate aspects of migrant experience become exemplified in jokes about the Sancho - a hypothetical character who has moved in on a day labourer's family and who enjoys the money he sends home. Joking turns to more serious topics of nostalgia and tensions with family far away, elements that come together with the fears and threats of labour on the corner and affect the way day labourers see themselves. Sexuality is rearticulated in the absence of women and masculinity becomes enmeshed in the contingencies of unregulated work and long-term separation from the people the men support. Together, these elements result in the articulation of threat to the immigrant body itself, which is exemplified by anxieties over homosexual propositions on the corner. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Calixto O.-J.,El Rosario University | Anaya J.-M.,El Rosario University
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hierarchical social classification associated with different outcomes in health and disease. The most important factors influencing SES are income, educational level, occupational class, social class, and ancestry. These factors are closely related to each other as they present certain dependent interactions. Since there is a need to improve the understanding of the concept of SES and the ways it affects health and disease, we review herein the tools currently available to evaluate SES and its relationship with health and autoimmune diseases. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a frequent pathology affecting 1-1.5% of women under 40 years old. Despite advances in diagnosing and treating human infertility, POF is still classified as being idiopathic in 50-80% of cases, strongly suggesting a genetic origin for the disease. Different types of autosomal and X-linked genetic anomalies can originate the phenotype in syndromic and non-syndromic POF cases. Particular interest has been focused on research into non-syndromic POF causative coding variants during the past two decades. This has been based on the assumption that amino acid substitutions might modify the intrinsic physicochemical properties of functional proteins, thereby inducing pathological phenotypes. In this case, a restricted number of mutations might originate the disease. However, like other complex pathologies, POF might result from synergistic/compensatory effects caused by several low-to-mildly drastic mutations which have frequently been classified as non-functional SNPs. Indeed, reproductive phenotypes can be considered as quantitative traits resulting from the subtle interaction of many genes. Although numerous sequencing projects have involved candidate genes, only a few coding mutations explaining a low percentage of cases have been described. Such apparent failure to identify aetiological coding sequence variations might have been due to the inherent molecular complexity of mammalian reproduction and to the difficulty of simultaneously analysing large genomic regions by Sanger sequencing.The purpose of this review is to present the molecular and cellular effects caused by non-synonymous mutations which have been formally associated, by functional tests, with the aetiology of hypergonadotropic non-syndromic POF. Considerations have also been included regarding the polygenic nature of reproduction and POF, as well as future approaches for identifying novel aetiological genes based on next generation sequencing (NGS). © 2015 The Author.

To determine the relative costs and health effects of interventions to combat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and tobacco related disease in order to guide the allocation of resources in developing countries. Cost effectiveness analysis of 123 single or combined prevention and treatment strategies for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and smoking by means of a lifetime population model. Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE) and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Demographic and epidemiological data were taken from the WHO databases of mortality and global burden of disease. Estimates of intervention coverage, effectiveness, and resource needs were drawn from clinical trials, observational studies, and treatment guidelines. Unit costs were taken from the WHO-CHOICE (Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective) price database. Cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Most of the interventions studied were considered highly cost effective, meaning they generate one healthy year of life at a cost of <$Int2000 (which is the gross domestic product per capita of the two regions considered here). Interventions that offer particularly good monetary value, and which could be considered for prioritised implementation or scale up, include demand reduction strategies of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (<$Int950 and <$Int200 per DALY averted in AfrE and SearD respectively); combination drug therapy for people with a >25% chance of experiencing a cardiovascular event over the next decade, either alone or together with specific multidrug regimens for the secondary prevention of post-acute ischaemic heart disease and stroke (<$Int150 and <$Int230 per DALY averted in AfrE and SearD respectively); and retinopathy screening and glycaemic control for patients with diabetes (<$Int2100 and <$Int950 per DALY averted in AfrE and SearD respectively). This comparative economic assessment has identified a set of population-wide and individual strategies for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease that are inexpensive and cost effective in low resource settings.

Montoya-Ortiz G.,El Rosario University
Autoimmune Diseases | Year: 2013

Senescence is a normal biological process that occurs in all organisms and involves a decline in cell functions. This process is caused by molecular regulatory machinery alterations, and it is closely related to telomere erosion in chromosomes. In the context of the immune system, this phenomenon is known as immunosenescence and refers to the immune function deregulation. Therefore, functions of several cells involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses are severely compromised with age progression (e.g., changes in lymphocyte subsets, decreased proliferative responses, chronic inflammatory states, etc.). These alterations make elderly individuals prone to not only infectious diseases but also to malignancy and autoimmunity. This review will explore the molecular aspects of processes related to cell aging, their importance in the context of the immune system, and their participation in elderly SLE patients. © 2013 Gladis Montoya-Ortiz.

The focus of this article is a paradox inherent in the political effects of spatial claims undertaken by multicultural policies in many nation states: though territory is considered as one of the primary means of achieving autonomy and self-determination, it is at the same time a mechanism that encloses difference. Through a combination of archival and ethnographic research I study the political effects of binding indigenous people's minority rights with indigenous reservations in Colombia. I focus on analyzing the legal ways in which an "ethnic indigenous type" has been attached to an "ethnic indigenous rural topos" in the jurisprudence of the Colombian Constitutional Court. I also examine how ethnic groups in the capital city of Bogotá have questioned the multicultural ideals of indigeneity and the romantic desires of what an indigenous place should look like. Ultimately, my intention is to draw attention both analytically and politically, to the necessity of more thorough analyses of the consequences of strict forms of spatializing ethnicity. © 2011 The Author Antipode © 2011 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Quintero G.A.,El Rosario University
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014

Medical education has been the subject of ongoing debate since the early 1900s. The core of the discussion is about the importance of scientific knowledge on biological understanding at the expense of its social and humanistic characteristics. Unfortunately, reforms to the medical curriculum are still based on a biological vision of the health-illness process. In order to respond to the current needs of society, which is education's main objective, the learning processes of physicians and their instruction must change once again. The priority is the concept of the health-illness process that is primarily social and cultural, into which the biological and psychological aspects are inserted. A new curriculum has been developed that addresses a comprehensive instruction of the biological, psychological, social, and cultural (historical) aspects of medicine, with opportunities for students to acquire leadership, teamwork, and communication skills in order to introduce improvements into the healthcare systems where they work. © 2014 Quintero.

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