The El Bosque University , is a coeducational, nonsectarian private university located in north Bogotá, Colombia. Founded in 1977, the university currently offers 20 undergraduate programs, as well as several specializations, Master's degrees and Doctorates. Wikipedia.
Rubiano A.M.,El Bosque University |
Carney N.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Chesnut R.,Harborview Medical Center |
Puyana J.C.,University of Pittsburgh
Nature | Year: 2015
Traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. The devastating impact of 'trauma', a term used to define the global burden of disease related to all injuries, is the leading cause of loss of human potential across the globe, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Enormous challenges must be met to significantly advance neurotrauma research around the world, specifically in underserved and austere environments. Neurotrauma research at the global level needs to be contextualized: different regions have their own needs and obstacles. Interventions that are not considered a priority in some regions could be a priority for others. The introduction of inexpensive and innovative interventions, including mobile technologies and e-health applications, focused on policy management improvement are essential and should be applicable to the needs of the local environment. The simple transfer of a clinical question from resource-rich environments to those of low-and middle-income countries that lack sophisticated interventions may not be the best strategy to address these countries' needs. Emphasis on promoting the design of true 'ecological' studies that include the evaluation of human factors in relation to the process of care, analytical descriptions of health systems, and how leadership is best applied in medical communities and society as a whole will become crucial.
Davlieva M.,Rice University |
Zhang W.,Rice University |
Arias C.A.,University of Houston |
Arias C.A.,El Bosque University |
Shamoo Y.,Rice University
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013
Daptomycin (DAP) resistance in enterococci has been linked to mutations in genes that alter the cell envelope stress response (CESR) (liaFSR) and changes in enzymes that directly affect phospholipid homeostasis, and these changes may alter membrane composition, such as that of cardiolipin synthase (Cls). While Cls substitutions are observed in response to DAP therapy, the effect of these mutations on Cls activity remains obscure. We have expressed, purified, and characterized Cls enzymes from both Enterococcus faecium S447 (residues 52 to 482; Cls447a) and Enterococcus faecalis S613 (residues 53 to 483; Cls613a) as well as Cls variants harboring a single-amino-acid change derived from DAP-resistant isolates of E. faecium. E. faecium Cls447a and E. faecalis Cls613a are tightly associated with the membrane and copurify with their substrate, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and product, cardiolipin (CL). The amount of PG that copurifies with Cls is in molar excess to protein, suggesting that the enzyme localizes to PG-rich membrane regions. Both Cls447aH215R and Cls447aR218Q showed an increase in Vmax (μM CL/min/μM protein) from 0.16±0.01 to 0.26±0.02 and 0.26±0.04, respectively, indicating that mutations associated with adaptation to DAP increase Cls activity. Modeling of Cls447a to Streptomyces sp. phospholipase D indicates that the adaptive mutations Cls447aH215R and Cls447aR218Q are proximal to the phospholipase domain 1 (PLD1) active site and near the putative nucleophile H217. As mutations to Cls are part of a larger genomic adaptation process, increased Cls activity is likely to be highly epistatic with other changes to facilitate DAP resistance. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Arias C.A.,Center for the Study of Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens |
Arias C.A.,University of Houston |
Arias C.A.,El Bosque University |
Contreras G.A.,El Bosque University |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010
Enterococci are organisms with a remarkable ability to adapt to the environment and acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. The evolution of antimicrobial resistance in these organisms poses enormous challenges for clinicians when faced with patients affected with severe infections. The increased prevalence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium worldwide has resulted in a major decrease in therapeutic options because the majority of E. faecium isolates are now resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin, and exhibit high-level resistance to aminoglycosides, which are three of the traditionally most useful anti-enterococcal antibiotics. Newer antibiotics such as linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline have good in vitro activity against enterococcal isolates, although their clinical use may be limited in certain clinical scenarios as a result of reduced rates of success, possible underdosing for enterococci and low serum levels, respectively, and also by the emergence of resistance. The experimental agent oritavancin may offer some hope for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci but clinical data are still lacking. Thus, optimal therapies for the treatment of multidrug-resistant enterococcal infections continue to be based on empirical observations and extrapolations from in vitro and animal data. Clinical studies evaluating new strategies, including combination therapies, to treat severe vancomycin-resistant E. faecium infections are urgently needed. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Nannini E.C.,National University of Rosario |
Singh K.V.,El Bosque University |
Arias C.A.,El Bosque University |
Murray B.E.,El Bosque University |
Murray B.E.,University of Houston
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013
Several reports have implicated the inoculum effect that some strains of type A beta-lactamase (Bla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) show against cefazolin as the cause for clinical failures in certain serious deep-seated infections. Here, using a previously reported MSSA strain displaying this phenotype (TX0117), we obtained a Bla-cured derivative (TX0117c) with a combination of novobiocin and high temperature. Both isolates were then used in a rat endocarditis model and treated with cefazolin, nafcillin, and daptomycin, given to simulate human dosing. Animals were treated for 3 days and either sacrificed at 24 h after the last antibiotic dose (standard group) or left untreated for an additional 3 days (relapse group). With TX0117 in the standard treatment group, daptomycin and nafcillin were both significantly better than cefazolin in reducing CFU/g of vegetations, achieving mean log10 reductions compared to levels in untreated rats of 7.1, 5.3, and 1.8, respectively (cefazolin versus daptomycin, P<0.0001; cefazolin versus nafcillin, P=0.005; daptomycin versus nafcillin, P=0.053). In addition, cefazolin was significantly more effective in reducing vegetation titers of TX0117c than of TX0117 (mean log10 reduction of 1.4 versus 5.5, respectively; P=0.0001). Similar results were observed with animals in the relapse group. Thus, these data show that there can be an in vivo consequence of the in vitro inoculum effect that some MSSA strains display against cefazolin and indicate a specific role for Bla production using a Bla-cured derivative strain against which cefazolin regained both in vitro and in vivo activity. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Cardenas D.,El Bosque University |
Cardenas D.,University of Paris Descartes
e-SPEN Journal | Year: 2013
Background and aim: The link between food and health has been documented since Antiquity. The aim of the article is to show that the alleged Hippocratic phrase "let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food" is a widespread misquotation, lying at the root of an entire misconception about the ancient concepts of food and medicine. Methods: Examples of publications gathered from the MEDLINE® and Google Scholar databases which cite the phrase verbatim and attribute it to Hippocrates were selected. Then, an extensive review of the works related to food and diet in the Corpus Hippocraticum was made in order to search for the phrase. Results: At least for the last 30 years this phrase has mistakenly helped scientists confirm the importance of food to health and highlight new ethical challenges in medicine and dietetics. We showed that at least one biomedical journal per year has cited the phrase. Conclusion: This literary creation has led to an essential misconception. For Hippocrates, even if food was closely linked to health and disease, the concept of food was not confused with that of medication. © 2013 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Martinez-Gutierrez M.,University of Antioquia |
Castellanos J.E.,El Bosque University |
Gallego-Gomez J.C.,University of Antioquia
Intervirology | Year: 2011
Background: Most of the effects of statins can be explained by pleiotropic effects independent of their lowering of serum cholesterol; in some cases, these effects have been shown to be a result of the role of statins in the prenylation of cellular proteins, some of which are involved in the life cycle of animal viruses. This study evaluated the potential antiviral activity of lovastatin (LOV) against dengue virus (DENV) infection of epithelial and endothelial cells (VERO cells, epithelial cells derived from African green monkey kidney, and HMEC-1 cells, human dermal microvascular endothelial cells). Methods: To evaluate its potential antiviral effects, LOV was used before, during and after inoculation of cell cultures with DENV. Results: Before and after viral inoculation, LOV caused a reduction in virus yield (80% for HMECs and 25% for VERO cells). However, with LOV treatment after inoculation induced a marked increase (2- to 9-fold) in viral-positive RNA while the amount of viral protein increased only by 13-23%. A moderate reduction (1 log unit) in viral titer occurred concurrent with the increase in DENV genomic RNA and protein within the cells. Conclusions: According to our results, LOV appears to have a greater effect on viral assembly than on replication, resulting in the cellular presence of viral genomic RNA and proteins that fail to take the normal assembly pathway. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG.
Kung S.,Mayo Medical School |
Espinel Z.,El Bosque University |
Espinel Z.,University of Miami |
Lapid M.I.,Mayo Medical School
Mayo Clinic Proceedings | Year: 2012
Nightmares, frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and clinically relevant in today's world of violence, are difficult to treat, with few pharmacologic options. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence for the use of prazosin in the treatment of nightmares. A comprehensive search was performed using the databases EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from their inception to March 9, 2012, using keywords prazosin and nightmares/PTSD or associated terms (see text). Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts and selected relevant studies. Descriptive data and outcomes of interest from eligible studies were extracted by 1 author, and checked by 2 others. The risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Articles met criteria for inclusion if prazosin was used to treat nightmares, and outcome measures included nightmares or related symptoms of sleep disorders. Our search yielded 21 studies, consisting of 4 RCTs, 4 open-label studies, 4 retrospective chart reviews, and 9 single case reports. The prazosin dose ranged from 1 to 16 mg/d. Results were mixed for the 4 RCTs: 3 reported significant improvement in the number of nightmares, and 1 found no reduction in the number of nightmares. Reduced nightmare severity with use of prazosin was consistently reported in the open-label trials, retrospective chart reviews, and single case reports. © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
Castro-Nunez J.,El Bosque University |
Gonzalez M.D.,El Bosque University
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2013
Maxillary and mandibular bone defects can result from injury, congenital defect, or accident, or as a consequence of surgical procedures when treating pathology or defects affecting jaw bones. The glandular odontogenic cyst is an infrequent type of odontogenic cyst that can leave a bony defect after being treated by aggressive surgical means. First described in 1987 by Padayachee and Van Wyk, it is a potentially aggressive entity, having a predisposition to recur when treated conservatively, with only 111 cases having been reported hitherto. Most reports emphasize its clinical, radiographic, and histologic features, including a few considerations on rehabilitation for these patients. The aim of this article is to present the case of a 24-year-old male patient who, in 2001, was diagnosed with a glandular odontogenic cyst and to focus on the surgical approach and rehabilitation scheme. We performed an anterior partial maxillectomy. The osseous defect was treated using bone transport distraction. Dental and occlusal rehabilitation was achieved with titanium implants over transported bone and an implant-supported overdenture. A 9-year follow-up shows no evidence of recurrence of the pathology, adequate shape and amount of bone, functional occlusal and dental rehabilitation, and patient's satisfaction. © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
Aguilera-Castro F.,El Bosque University
Revista Colombiana de Anestesiologia | Year: 2016
Introduction: Although rare, intraoperative anaphylaxis may be life-threatening. Opioids, including remifentanil, have the lowest rates of association with allergic reactions during anaesthesia. Recurrence of anaphylactic reaction after continuation of a remifentanil infusion creates the suspicion of a causal relationship between this agent and the reaction. Case description: Case presentation of anaphylactic reaction during balanced anaesthesia in a 19 year-old female patient. At the start of the surgical procedure, the patient developed refractory hypotension and generalized erythema, which responded to vasopressors, antihistamines and the discontinuation of the anaesthetic agents. The remifentanil infusion was reinitiated later in response to the need of increasing the depth of the anaesthesia, and the anaphylactic reaction recurred. Conclusion: Any medication or potential allergen to which a patient is exposed during the perioperative period may cause anaphylaxis; the usual culprits are neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). In 80% of cases of hypersensitivity to medications, the origin is not immunological; the only way to confirm anaphylaxis is by means of biological and skin testing performed in a unit specializing in allergy and anaesthesia. In this case, confirmation was not possible because, in Colombia, the specific technological and biological resources are lacking. © 2016 Sociedad Colombiana de Anestesiología y Reanimación.
Delgado T.,El Bosque University
9th International Conference on Design and Emotion 2014: The Colors of Care | Year: 2014
The elements of the Cultural Heritage have brought new discussions and challenges because despite the recognition of their value they have been idolized and consequently confined in museum cases, disconnecting them from reality. This research has been developed from a Design framework and explores how the narrative character of the Oral Patrimony is able to connect these resources with their contemporary context and bearers; thus cultural goods become Storytellers (as any product), able to reveal their potential as resources of sustainable development at different levels (cultural, economic, environmental, political, etc). Throughout some Design strategies (Emotional Design and Co-Design) people-cultural bearers can become active users and consumers of their territory and cultural property and have a meaningful approach (supported by Storytelling) that helps them to understand the potential of their Cultural Heritage in the construction of Creative Industries and therefore of a Creative Economy.