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Yucel T.,Tufts University | Yucel T.,Ekteino Laboratories | Lovett M.L.,Tufts University | Lovett M.L.,Ekteino Laboratories | Kaplan D.L.,Tufts University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

Silk presents a rare combination of desirable properties for sustained drug delivery, including aqueous-based purification and processing options without chemical cross-linkers, compatibility with common sterilization methods, controllable and surface-mediated biodegradation into non-inflammatory by-products, biocompatibility, utility in drug stabilization, and robust mechanical properties. A versatile silk-based toolkit is currently available for sustained drug delivery formulations of small molecule through macromolecular drugs, with a promise to mitigate several drawbacks associated with other degradable sustained delivery technologies in the market. Silk-based formulations utilize silk's well-defined nano- through microscale structural hierarchy, stimuli-responsive self-assembly pathways and crystal polymorphism, as well as sequence and genetic modification options towards targeted pharmaceutical outcomes. Furthermore, by manipulating the interactions between silk and drug molecules, near-zero order sustained release may be achieved through diffusion- and degradation-based release mechanisms. Because of these desirable properties, there has been increasing industrial interest in silk-based drug delivery systems currently at various stages of the developmental pipeline from pre-clinical to FDA-approved products. Here, we discuss the unique aspects of silk technology as a sustained drug delivery platform and highlight the current state of the art in silk-based drug delivery. We also offer a potential early development pathway for silk-based sustained delivery products. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lovett M.L.,Tufts University | Lovett M.L.,Ekteino Laboratories | Wang X.,Tufts University | Yucel T.,Tufts University | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2015

Silk hydrogels were formulated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapeutics for sustained ocular drug delivery. Using silk fibroin as a vehicle for delivery, bevacizumab-loaded hydrogel formulations demonstrated sustained release of 3 months or greater in experiments in vitro as well as in vivo using an intravitreal injection model in Dutch-belted rabbits. Using both standard dose (1.25 mg bevacizumab/50 μL injection) and high dose (5.0 mg bevacizumab/50 μL injection) hydrogel formulations, release concentrations were achieved at day 90 that were equivalent or greater than those achieved at day 30 with the positive standard dose control (single injection (50 μL) of 1.25 mg bevacizumab solution), which is estimated to be the therapeutic threshold based on the current dosage administration schedule of 1 injection/month. These gels also demonstrated signs of biodegradation after 3 months, suggesting that repeated injections may be possible (e.g., one injection every 3-6 months or longer). Due to its pharmacokinetic and biodegradation profiles, this delivery system may be used to reduce the frequency of dosing for patients currently enduring treatment using bevacizumab or other anti-VEGF therapeutics. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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