Akomolafe J.K.,Afe Babalola University |
Ogunleye E.O.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism | Year: 2017
Despite the abundant deposit of gas resources in Nigeria, a large proportion of the country’s population still depend on traditional fuels such as firewood for cooking. This study investigates the determinants of households’ fuel choice in urban Nigeria. This study made use of primary data which were collected through administration of questionnaires in twelve states spread across six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. The cooking fuels examined are firewood, kerosene, LPG, and electricity. Multinomial logit model was used to estimate the determinants of fuel choices. The results showed that income, age of the wife, education level of the wife, and household size were important factors that determine cooking fuel choices across the country. The paper concludes that efforts should be aimed at making clean cooking fuels especially LPG affordable and available for urban households. © 2017. ASERS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Ogunsile S.E.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
International Education Studies | Year: 2012
The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pattern and body mass index on the academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ekiti State. One hundred and twenty eight students (10-19 years) selected from three senior secondary schools in Ekiti State Nigeria, formed the participants for this study. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection and the data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics (bivariate Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression) using Spss version 12 at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of this study showed that of all the adolescents, only 16.4%, 14.1%, 7.0%, 16.4% and 10.2% followed a healthy dietary pattern of regular intake of breakfast, three square meals, milk, fruits and vegetables respectively. 50%, 38.3% and 45.3% followed an unhealthy dietary pattern of regular intake of sweets, chewing gum and soft drinks. With regards to body mass index and academic performance, less than 40% of the respondents were of normal weight and only half of the respondents had good academic performance. Body mass index, breakfast consumption, eating three square meals and regular intake of fruits and vegetables all had significant effects (P <0.05) on the academic performance of adolescents. Also, there was a significant joint effect of body mass index and healthy dietary pattern on the academic performance of these adolescents. Parents and school authorities should make all efforts to ensure healthy dietary pattern among adolescents so as to enhance their academic performance.
Adeniji J.A.,University of Ibadan |
Faleye T.O.C.,University of Ibadan |
Faleye T.O.C.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015
Between 2005 and 2011, 23 lineages of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were detected in Nigeria with nonstructural region (NSR) of non-polio enterovirus C (NPEV-C) origin. However, no information exists on NPEV-C strains recombining with oral poliovirus type 2 vaccine strains (OPV2) to make type 2 cVDPVs (cVDPV2s) in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to investigate the probable contribution of NPEV-Cs recently isolated in the region to the emergence of cVDPV2s. Eleven enterovirus C (EV-C) strains (8 NPEV-Cs and 3 PV2s) previously isolated by the authors were analysed in this study. All 11 isolates were assayed for cell-line-dependent growth restriction in four cell lines (LLC-MK2, MCF-7, RD and L20B). Subsequently, the isolates were subjected to RT-PCR specific for VP1 and 3Dpol/3′-UTR of EV-C. All PCR products were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. All eight NPEV-Cs replicated exclusively in the MCF-7 cell line, while the three PV2s replicated in all four cell lines. The eight NPEV-Cs were identified as CVA13 (7 isolates) and CVA20 (1 isolate) by VP1 analysis, while all 11 isolates were confirmed to be EV-Cs by 3Dpol/3′-UTR analysis. In addition, phylogeny violations suggested that some cVDPVs might have recombined with common ancestors of the NPEV-Cs described in this study. This was confirmed by the scatter plot of divergence in VP1 against that of 3Dpol/3′-UTR sequences for pairs of isolates. The results of this study showed that the NSR of unknown origin found in cVDPVs from the region might have come from NPEV-Cs (e.g., CVA13 and CVA20) circulating in Nigeria. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.
Ashogbon A.O.,Adekunle Ajasin University |
Akintayo E.T.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2014
Starch is, after cellulose, the most abundant organic compound in nature. Modification of starch is carried out to enhance the positive attributes and to eliminate the shortcomings of the native starches. Various methods have been developed to produce a range of modified starches with a variety of characteristics and applications. Physically modified starches are simple and inexpensive because they can be produced without chemicals or even biological agents. In contrast, chemical modification is possible due to ubiquitous hydroxyl groups in starches that have been exploited for over a century, principally in the preparation of starch esters and ethers, but also in more subtle alterations, e.g., in order to tune the structure of starches for specific applications. All these techniques tend to alter the highly flexible starch polymer with changed physicochemical properties and modified structural attributes of high technological value for the food and non-food industries. Modification of starch is an ever evolving industry with numerous possibilities to generate novel starches which includes new functional and value added properties as demanded by the industry. This review aims to summarize the latest developments and recent knowledge regarding physically and chemically modified starches. This paper covers physical modification methods (pre-gelatinization, hydrothermal, and non-thermal processes), some chemical modifications and a combination of both. Received: April 30, 2013 Revised: July 10, 2013 Accepted: July 17, 2013. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Atiba A.S.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal | Year: 2014
To determine changes in malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Per-oxidase) levels in pre-eclamptic Nigerian women A Total of 100 subjects each for pre-eclamptic,apparently normal and non pregnant women were recruited into the study.Venous blood samples were taken from the participants during second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at the point of contact for non pregnant women. Malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were measured accordingly from plasma and haemolysate prepared from whole blood.Variables were analysed using SPSS version 16, taking level of significance to be 0.05 RESULTS: Plasma malondialdehyde in the third trimester (3.13±0.61umol/l) of pre-eclamptic subjects was higher than in the second trimester (3.00±1.21umol/l).Plasma malondialdehyde in the third trimester of normal pregnancy (2.03±0.71umol/l) was also found to be significantly higher than in the second trimester (1.65±0.62umol/ l)(p<0.0001). Glutathione peroxidase in pre-eclamptic subjects was significantly higher in the third trimester (2804.11±1573.00U/L) as compared to the second trimester (2655.00±1751.30U/L), p= 0.0001.Glutathione peroxidase activity in the third trimester of normal pregnancy(3339.50±1733.80U/L) was also found to be higher than in the second trimester(3023.50±1115.90U/L)(p=0.131). Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in the third trimester of pre-eclamptic pregnancy when compared to second trimester (110.40±59.47 Vs 118.01±64.41 U/ ml)(p<0.039) .Similarly,superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in the third trimester of normal pregnancy (110.40±59.47U/ml) than in the second trimester(153.01±71.85U/ml)(p<0.0001). There was an increased level of lipid peroxidation products,malondialdehyde in subjects with pre-eclampsia. This was more in the third trimester. There was an increased oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia as evidenced also by low serum level of superoxide dismutase in the third trimester.Diet rich in antioxidant enzyme might be beneficial.
Olanlokun J.O.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
African journal of medicine and medical sciences | Year: 2012
Malaria, the most important parasitic disease afflicting man is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of the disease in the absence of an effective vaccine. The incidence of resistance of malaria parasites to chemotherapy is increasing and complicated. This study was therefore undertaken in order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei on P. berghei-induced malaria using chloroquine as control. Different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract (ME), n-hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethylacetate(EF) and aqueous (AF) fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei were administered orally to albino mice. Five milligrammes chloroquine base per kilogramme body weight (5 mg/kg bw) was used as positive control while the negative control mice received only the vehicle (5% v/v tween 80). The results obtained showed that the 400 mg/kg bw dose was more effective with respect to the parasite clearance than the 200 mg/kg bw dose. The 400 mg/kg bw dose of ME gave 68.1% percent parasite clearance. The CF gave the highest clearance of 98.4% at 400 mg/kg bw after 7 days treatment while chloroquine at 5 mg/kg bw gave 100% parasite clearance. The order of increasing potency of the fractions (parasite clearance) was (EF 50.0% < AF 60.3% < HF 63.1%, < CF 98.4%) indicating that the active principle in the stem bark was highest in the CF. Percentage parasitemia following exposure to these fractions also decreased in all groups in the same order and was only significant (p < 0.05) in CF (0.11%) compared to the untreated control group. The ME of A. boonei also caused increase in PCV by 15.5%. Purification enhanced PCV value as the HF and CF fractions gave 19.0% and 24.5% increases, respectively. However, 31.5% increase in PCV was obtained in the albino mice treated with chloroquine. The EF and AF gave increase of 10.0% and 11.0% increase relative to the negative control treated mice. The high bioactivity of CF and HF indicate that the putative compound(s) in A. boonei are lipophillic and further purification could enhance greater activity. Further work is required to isolate the bioactive compound for a promising antimalarial drug from the chloroform fraction.
Oladimeji A.A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2013
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and characteristics of SBP among in-patients with cirrhosis and ascites seen at our facility. Thirty one patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites who were admitted into the Medical ward of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria from August 2009 to July 2010 were retrospectively studied. All the patients had abdominal paracentesis done within 48 hours of admission under aseptic condition and the data obtained were analyzed. The mean age of the studied population was 62±9 years (age range 43-78 years). Of the 21 that developed SPB, culture positive SBP was present in 66.7% (14/21) while CNNA was found in 33.3% (7/21). The prevalence of MNB was 26% (8/31) in this study. Of those with SBP, 93% had monomicrobial infection with aerobic Gram negative bacilli being responsible in 66.7% of the cases with E. coli (70%) being the predominant organism followed by Klebsiella species. Gram positive organisms accounted for 33.3% with Streptococcal species (60%) being the predominant organism followed by Staphylococcus aureus (40%). Patients with SBP had significantly lower platelet count when compared with those without SBP, p < 0.05. Also, international normalization ratio (INR) was significantly higher in those patients with SBP compared with those without SBP, p < 0.05. The poor prognostic indicators found in this study were; low ascitic protein, hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction (creatinine >2 mg/dl) and leukocytosis (p < 0.05). It is therefore imperative to do diagnostic abdominal paracentesis for cell count and culture in any patient with onset of ascites or cirrhotic patients with ascites and suggestive symptoms compatible or suggestive of SBP.
Adegoke S.A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti |
Alo L.A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2013
Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine.covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.
Adefolaju T.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
International Journal of Health Research | Year: 2011
Traditional medicine had existed in Nigeria prior to the era of colonialism serving the health needs of the people. However with the advent of colonialism, it experienced restrictions and obstacles in the face of the introduction of Western medicine. In recent time, the practice got a resurgence and greater patronage by the people due to its ability to explain the 'hidden' cause of illness and consequently, cure the illness. This paper accounts for this renewed patronage of traditional medicine by the people by locating it in the ability of its practitioners to respond to their environment of practice. This entails a conscious restructuring and 'modernising' efforts at alligning its practice with current trends in orthordox practice by establishing standards of safety, efficacy and quality control. This is coupled with government recent interest in developing traditional medicine for national health system development and economic benefits. © Poracom Academic Publishers. All rights reserved.
Ajayi Iyiade A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti |
Omotoye Olusola J.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
African Health Sciences | Year: 2012
Background: Welders have been identified as a high risk group for eye disorders due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of eye diseases amongst welders in Ile-Ife, Osun state. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study of 405 consenting welders. Information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained using a pre-tested proforma and all subjects had visual actuity test, anterior and posterior segments examination, test of stereopsis and macular function. Results: Two hundred and seventy five (67.9%) of the respondents were arc welders, 99(22.5%) were gas welders while 39(9.6%) utilized both welding techniques. The age of the respondents ranged from 16 years to 80 years with a mean of 38 ± 13 years. Conjunctival degenerative disorders like pingueculum (50.1%) and pterygium(17.5%) constituted the commonest eye disorders among the welders. There were 6 blind eyes of 5 welders with pigmentary maculopathy accounting for the single case of bilateral blindness. There is a greater odd in developing pingueculum and Pterygium (OR=1.015, 1.039 respectively) in arc welders than in gas welders. Conclusion: Pingueculum, Pterygium, corneal opacity, and pigmentary macular deposits were the common eye disorders among welders.