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Adeniji J.A.,University of Ibadan | Faleye T.O.C.,University of Ibadan | Faleye T.O.C.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

Between 2005 and 2011, 23 lineages of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were detected in Nigeria with nonstructural region (NSR) of non-polio enterovirus C (NPEV-C) origin. However, no information exists on NPEV-C strains recombining with oral poliovirus type 2 vaccine strains (OPV2) to make type 2 cVDPVs (cVDPV2s) in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to investigate the probable contribution of NPEV-Cs recently isolated in the region to the emergence of cVDPV2s. Eleven enterovirus C (EV-C) strains (8 NPEV-Cs and 3 PV2s) previously isolated by the authors were analysed in this study. All 11 isolates were assayed for cell-line-dependent growth restriction in four cell lines (LLC-MK2, MCF-7, RD and L20B). Subsequently, the isolates were subjected to RT-PCR specific for VP1 and 3Dpol/3′-UTR of EV-C. All PCR products were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. All eight NPEV-Cs replicated exclusively in the MCF-7 cell line, while the three PV2s replicated in all four cell lines. The eight NPEV-Cs were identified as CVA13 (7 isolates) and CVA20 (1 isolate) by VP1 analysis, while all 11 isolates were confirmed to be EV-Cs by 3Dpol/3′-UTR analysis. In addition, phylogeny violations suggested that some cVDPVs might have recombined with common ancestors of the NPEV-Cs described in this study. This was confirmed by the scatter plot of divergence in VP1 against that of 3Dpol/3′-UTR sequences for pairs of isolates. The results of this study showed that the NSR of unknown origin found in cVDPVs from the region might have come from NPEV-Cs (e.g., CVA13 and CVA20) circulating in Nigeria. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Ashogbon A.O.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Akintayo E.T.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2014

Starch is, after cellulose, the most abundant organic compound in nature. Modification of starch is carried out to enhance the positive attributes and to eliminate the shortcomings of the native starches. Various methods have been developed to produce a range of modified starches with a variety of characteristics and applications. Physically modified starches are simple and inexpensive because they can be produced without chemicals or even biological agents. In contrast, chemical modification is possible due to ubiquitous hydroxyl groups in starches that have been exploited for over a century, principally in the preparation of starch esters and ethers, but also in more subtle alterations, e.g., in order to tune the structure of starches for specific applications. All these techniques tend to alter the highly flexible starch polymer with changed physicochemical properties and modified structural attributes of high technological value for the food and non-food industries. Modification of starch is an ever evolving industry with numerous possibilities to generate novel starches which includes new functional and value added properties as demanded by the industry. This review aims to summarize the latest developments and recent knowledge regarding physically and chemically modified starches. This paper covers physical modification methods (pre-gelatinization, hydrothermal, and non-thermal processes), some chemical modifications and a combination of both. Received: April 30, 2013 Revised: July 10, 2013 Accepted: July 17, 2013. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Ajayi A.O.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The West Indian medical journal | Year: 2012

This is to investigate the implication of fluoroquinolone usage in veterinary practice and the food chain system. Five hundred isolates of commensal E coli were recovered from the faeces of apparently healthy cattle in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The susceptibility of the bacteria was tested using standard laboratory procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect the presence of qnrA and qnrB genes, which were selected on the basis of their fluoroquinolone-resistant patterns. The agar disc diffusion technique revealed that the representative isolates showed multiple fluoroquinolone-resistance and this formed the basis for their selection for PCR amplification. The PCR revealed that ten of the 17 quinolone-resistant representative isolates showed distinct bands which are specific for the qnrB gene; in addition, only one strain of the 20 representative isolates of commensal E coli carried plasmids on which the qnrA gene was detected. This study has confirmed that plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance is a possible mechanism among the fluoroquinolone-resistant commensal E coli isolated from faeces of apparently healthy cattle in the study location.


Atiba A.S.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal | Year: 2014

To determine changes in malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Per-oxidase) levels in pre-eclamptic Nigerian women A Total of 100 subjects each for pre-eclamptic,apparently normal and non pregnant women were recruited into the study.Venous blood samples were taken from the participants during second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at the point of contact for non pregnant women. Malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were measured accordingly from plasma and haemolysate prepared from whole blood.Variables were analysed using SPSS version 16, taking level of significance to be 0.05 RESULTS: Plasma malondialdehyde in the third trimester (3.13±0.61umol/l) of pre-eclamptic subjects was higher than in the second trimester (3.00±1.21umol/l).Plasma malondialdehyde in the third trimester of normal pregnancy (2.03±0.71umol/l) was also found to be significantly higher than in the second trimester (1.65±0.62umol/ l)(p<0.0001). Glutathione peroxidase in pre-eclamptic subjects was significantly higher in the third trimester (2804.11±1573.00U/L) as compared to the second trimester (2655.00±1751.30U/L), p= 0.0001.Glutathione peroxidase activity in the third trimester of normal pregnancy(3339.50±1733.80U/L) was also found to be higher than in the second trimester(3023.50±1115.90U/L)(p=0.131). Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in the third trimester of pre-eclamptic pregnancy when compared to second trimester (110.40±59.47 Vs 118.01±64.41 U/ ml)(p<0.039) .Similarly,superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in the third trimester of normal pregnancy (110.40±59.47U/ml) than in the second trimester(153.01±71.85U/ml)(p<0.0001). There was an increased level of lipid peroxidation products,malondialdehyde in subjects with pre-eclampsia. This was more in the third trimester. There was an increased oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia as evidenced also by low serum level of superoxide dismutase in the third trimester.Diet rich in antioxidant enzyme might be beneficial.


Olanlokun J.O.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
African journal of medicine and medical sciences | Year: 2012

Malaria, the most important parasitic disease afflicting man is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of the disease in the absence of an effective vaccine. The incidence of resistance of malaria parasites to chemotherapy is increasing and complicated. This study was therefore undertaken in order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei on P. berghei-induced malaria using chloroquine as control. Different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract (ME), n-hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethylacetate(EF) and aqueous (AF) fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei were administered orally to albino mice. Five milligrammes chloroquine base per kilogramme body weight (5 mg/kg bw) was used as positive control while the negative control mice received only the vehicle (5% v/v tween 80). The results obtained showed that the 400 mg/kg bw dose was more effective with respect to the parasite clearance than the 200 mg/kg bw dose. The 400 mg/kg bw dose of ME gave 68.1% percent parasite clearance. The CF gave the highest clearance of 98.4% at 400 mg/kg bw after 7 days treatment while chloroquine at 5 mg/kg bw gave 100% parasite clearance. The order of increasing potency of the fractions (parasite clearance) was (EF 50.0% < AF 60.3% < HF 63.1%, < CF 98.4%) indicating that the active principle in the stem bark was highest in the CF. Percentage parasitemia following exposure to these fractions also decreased in all groups in the same order and was only significant (p < 0.05) in CF (0.11%) compared to the untreated control group. The ME of A. boonei also caused increase in PCV by 15.5%. Purification enhanced PCV value as the HF and CF fractions gave 19.0% and 24.5% increases, respectively. However, 31.5% increase in PCV was obtained in the albino mice treated with chloroquine. The EF and AF gave increase of 10.0% and 11.0% increase relative to the negative control treated mice. The high bioactivity of CF and HF indicate that the putative compound(s) in A. boonei are lipophillic and further purification could enhance greater activity. Further work is required to isolate the bioactive compound for a promising antimalarial drug from the chloroform fraction.


Oladimeji A.A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2013

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and characteristics of SBP among in-patients with cirrhosis and ascites seen at our facility. Thirty one patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites who were admitted into the Medical ward of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria from August 2009 to July 2010 were retrospectively studied. All the patients had abdominal paracentesis done within 48 hours of admission under aseptic condition and the data obtained were analyzed. The mean age of the studied population was 62±9 years (age range 43-78 years). Of the 21 that developed SPB, culture positive SBP was present in 66.7% (14/21) while CNNA was found in 33.3% (7/21). The prevalence of MNB was 26% (8/31) in this study. Of those with SBP, 93% had monomicrobial infection with aerobic Gram negative bacilli being responsible in 66.7% of the cases with E. coli (70%) being the predominant organism followed by Klebsiella species. Gram positive organisms accounted for 33.3% with Streptococcal species (60%) being the predominant organism followed by Staphylococcus aureus (40%). Patients with SBP had significantly lower platelet count when compared with those without SBP, p < 0.05. Also, international normalization ratio (INR) was significantly higher in those patients with SBP compared with those without SBP, p < 0.05. The poor prognostic indicators found in this study were; low ascitic protein, hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction (creatinine >2 mg/dl) and leukocytosis (p < 0.05). It is therefore imperative to do diagnostic abdominal paracentesis for cell count and culture in any patient with onset of ascites or cirrhotic patients with ascites and suggestive symptoms compatible or suggestive of SBP.


Adegoke S.A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti | Alo L.A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine.covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.


Adefolaju T.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
International Journal of Health Research | Year: 2011

Traditional medicine had existed in Nigeria prior to the era of colonialism serving the health needs of the people. However with the advent of colonialism, it experienced restrictions and obstacles in the face of the introduction of Western medicine. In recent time, the practice got a resurgence and greater patronage by the people due to its ability to explain the 'hidden' cause of illness and consequently, cure the illness. This paper accounts for this renewed patronage of traditional medicine by the people by locating it in the ability of its practitioners to respond to their environment of practice. This entails a conscious restructuring and 'modernising' efforts at alligning its practice with current trends in orthordox practice by establishing standards of safety, efficacy and quality control. This is coupled with government recent interest in developing traditional medicine for national health system development and economic benefits. © Poracom Academic Publishers. All rights reserved.


Owolabi O.T.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
WMSCI 2015 - 19th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings | Year: 2015

This study identified some of the common errors that frequently occur in physics practical works. Since errors cannot be absolutely avoided in measurements, an attempt has been made in this paper on the identification of the common errors and how to reduce them to the minimum. Students in preliminary science group of the College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, were used for the investigation. One hundred and fifty (150) students stratified into seventy-five (75) male and seventy-five female (75) from three consecutive years were randomly selected for the exercise. Since the study attempts finding solutions to the present problems by using the existing phenomenon, the descriptive research of the survey type was adopted. The parametric student t-statistical test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the hypothesis generated. The study revealed that there were differences in errors committed in three consecutive years. Also the errors committed by male and female students showed no significant differences except for errors in decimals which were significant at 0.05 level. Suggestions were made on how to avoid or reduce errors into minimum where such errors could not be avoided.


Ajayi Iyiade A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti | Omotoye Olusola J.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
African Health Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: Welders have been identified as a high risk group for eye disorders due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of eye diseases amongst welders in Ile-Ife, Osun state. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study of 405 consenting welders. Information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained using a pre-tested proforma and all subjects had visual actuity test, anterior and posterior segments examination, test of stereopsis and macular function. Results: Two hundred and seventy five (67.9%) of the respondents were arc welders, 99(22.5%) were gas welders while 39(9.6%) utilized both welding techniques. The age of the respondents ranged from 16 years to 80 years with a mean of 38 ± 13 years. Conjunctival degenerative disorders like pingueculum (50.1%) and pterygium(17.5%) constituted the commonest eye disorders among the welders. There were 6 blind eyes of 5 welders with pigmentary maculopathy accounting for the single case of bilateral blindness. There is a greater odd in developing pingueculum and Pterygium (OR=1.015, 1.039 respectively) in arc welders than in gas welders. Conclusion: Pingueculum, Pterygium, corneal opacity, and pigmentary macular deposits were the common eye disorders among welders.

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