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Ashogbon A.O.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Akintayo E.T.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2014

Starch is, after cellulose, the most abundant organic compound in nature. Modification of starch is carried out to enhance the positive attributes and to eliminate the shortcomings of the native starches. Various methods have been developed to produce a range of modified starches with a variety of characteristics and applications. Physically modified starches are simple and inexpensive because they can be produced without chemicals or even biological agents. In contrast, chemical modification is possible due to ubiquitous hydroxyl groups in starches that have been exploited for over a century, principally in the preparation of starch esters and ethers, but also in more subtle alterations, e.g., in order to tune the structure of starches for specific applications. All these techniques tend to alter the highly flexible starch polymer with changed physicochemical properties and modified structural attributes of high technological value for the food and non-food industries. Modification of starch is an ever evolving industry with numerous possibilities to generate novel starches which includes new functional and value added properties as demanded by the industry. This review aims to summarize the latest developments and recent knowledge regarding physically and chemically modified starches. This paper covers physical modification methods (pre-gelatinization, hydrothermal, and non-thermal processes), some chemical modifications and a combination of both. Received: April 30, 2013 Revised: July 10, 2013 Accepted: July 17, 2013. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Ajayi A.O.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The West Indian medical journal | Year: 2012

This is to investigate the implication of fluoroquinolone usage in veterinary practice and the food chain system. Five hundred isolates of commensal E coli were recovered from the faeces of apparently healthy cattle in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The susceptibility of the bacteria was tested using standard laboratory procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect the presence of qnrA and qnrB genes, which were selected on the basis of their fluoroquinolone-resistant patterns. The agar disc diffusion technique revealed that the representative isolates showed multiple fluoroquinolone-resistance and this formed the basis for their selection for PCR amplification. The PCR revealed that ten of the 17 quinolone-resistant representative isolates showed distinct bands which are specific for the qnrB gene; in addition, only one strain of the 20 representative isolates of commensal E coli carried plasmids on which the qnrA gene was detected. This study has confirmed that plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance is a possible mechanism among the fluoroquinolone-resistant commensal E coli isolated from faeces of apparently healthy cattle in the study location. Source

Atiba A.S.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal | Year: 2014

To determine changes in malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Per-oxidase) levels in pre-eclamptic Nigerian women A Total of 100 subjects each for pre-eclamptic,apparently normal and non pregnant women were recruited into the study.Venous blood samples were taken from the participants during second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at the point of contact for non pregnant women. Malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were measured accordingly from plasma and haemolysate prepared from whole blood.Variables were analysed using SPSS version 16, taking level of significance to be 0.05 RESULTS: Plasma malondialdehyde in the third trimester (3.13±0.61umol/l) of pre-eclamptic subjects was higher than in the second trimester (3.00±1.21umol/l).Plasma malondialdehyde in the third trimester of normal pregnancy (2.03±0.71umol/l) was also found to be significantly higher than in the second trimester (1.65±0.62umol/ l)(p<0.0001). Glutathione peroxidase in pre-eclamptic subjects was significantly higher in the third trimester (2804.11±1573.00U/L) as compared to the second trimester (2655.00±1751.30U/L), p= 0.0001.Glutathione peroxidase activity in the third trimester of normal pregnancy(3339.50±1733.80U/L) was also found to be higher than in the second trimester(3023.50±1115.90U/L)(p=0.131). Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in the third trimester of pre-eclamptic pregnancy when compared to second trimester (110.40±59.47 Vs 118.01±64.41 U/ ml)(p<0.039) .Similarly,superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in the third trimester of normal pregnancy (110.40±59.47U/ml) than in the second trimester(153.01±71.85U/ml)(p<0.0001). There was an increased level of lipid peroxidation products,malondialdehyde in subjects with pre-eclampsia. This was more in the third trimester. There was an increased oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia as evidenced also by low serum level of superoxide dismutase in the third trimester.Diet rich in antioxidant enzyme might be beneficial. Source

Olanlokun J.O.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
African journal of medicine and medical sciences | Year: 2012

Malaria, the most important parasitic disease afflicting man is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of the disease in the absence of an effective vaccine. The incidence of resistance of malaria parasites to chemotherapy is increasing and complicated. This study was therefore undertaken in order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei on P. berghei-induced malaria using chloroquine as control. Different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract (ME), n-hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethylacetate(EF) and aqueous (AF) fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei were administered orally to albino mice. Five milligrammes chloroquine base per kilogramme body weight (5 mg/kg bw) was used as positive control while the negative control mice received only the vehicle (5% v/v tween 80). The results obtained showed that the 400 mg/kg bw dose was more effective with respect to the parasite clearance than the 200 mg/kg bw dose. The 400 mg/kg bw dose of ME gave 68.1% percent parasite clearance. The CF gave the highest clearance of 98.4% at 400 mg/kg bw after 7 days treatment while chloroquine at 5 mg/kg bw gave 100% parasite clearance. The order of increasing potency of the fractions (parasite clearance) was (EF 50.0% < AF 60.3% < HF 63.1%, < CF 98.4%) indicating that the active principle in the stem bark was highest in the CF. Percentage parasitemia following exposure to these fractions also decreased in all groups in the same order and was only significant (p < 0.05) in CF (0.11%) compared to the untreated control group. The ME of A. boonei also caused increase in PCV by 15.5%. Purification enhanced PCV value as the HF and CF fractions gave 19.0% and 24.5% increases, respectively. However, 31.5% increase in PCV was obtained in the albino mice treated with chloroquine. The EF and AF gave increase of 10.0% and 11.0% increase relative to the negative control treated mice. The high bioactivity of CF and HF indicate that the putative compound(s) in A. boonei are lipophillic and further purification could enhance greater activity. Further work is required to isolate the bioactive compound for a promising antimalarial drug from the chloroform fraction. Source

Oladimeji A.A.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2013

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and characteristics of SBP among in-patients with cirrhosis and ascites seen at our facility. Thirty one patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites who were admitted into the Medical ward of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria from August 2009 to July 2010 were retrospectively studied. All the patients had abdominal paracentesis done within 48 hours of admission under aseptic condition and the data obtained were analyzed. The mean age of the studied population was 62±9 years (age range 43-78 years). Of the 21 that developed SPB, culture positive SBP was present in 66.7% (14/21) while CNNA was found in 33.3% (7/21). The prevalence of MNB was 26% (8/31) in this study. Of those with SBP, 93% had monomicrobial infection with aerobic Gram negative bacilli being responsible in 66.7% of the cases with E. coli (70%) being the predominant organism followed by Klebsiella species. Gram positive organisms accounted for 33.3% with Streptococcal species (60%) being the predominant organism followed by Staphylococcus aureus (40%). Patients with SBP had significantly lower platelet count when compared with those without SBP, p < 0.05. Also, international normalization ratio (INR) was significantly higher in those patients with SBP compared with those without SBP, p < 0.05. The poor prognostic indicators found in this study were; low ascitic protein, hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction (creatinine >2 mg/dl) and leukocytosis (p < 0.05). It is therefore imperative to do diagnostic abdominal paracentesis for cell count and culture in any patient with onset of ascites or cirrhotic patients with ascites and suggestive symptoms compatible or suggestive of SBP. Source

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