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Hatfield, United Kingdom

Getsios D.,United Biosource Corporation | Blume S.,United Biosource Corporation | Ishak K.J.,United Biosource Corporation | MacLaine G.,Eisai Europe Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Alzheimer's and Dementia

Background: Diagnosing and treating patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at an early stage should improve the quality of life of the patient and caregiver. In the United Kingdom, cost-effectiveness of early assessment of individuals presenting with subjective memory complaints and treating those with AD with donepezil was evaluated. Methods: A discrete event simulation of AD progression and the effect of treatment interventions was developed. Patient-level data from donepezil trials and a 7-year follow-up registry were used to model correlated longitudinal rates of change in cognition, behavior, and function. Other epidemiological and health services data, including estimates of undiagnosed dementia and delays in diagnosis, were based on published sources. Simulated individuals were followed up for 10 years. Results: In the base-case estimates, 17 patients need to be assessed to diagnose one patient with AD, resulting in an average assessment cost of £4100 ($6000; $1 US = £0.68 UK) per patient diagnosed (2007 cost year). In comparison with a scenario without early assessment or pharmacologic treatment, early assessment reduces health care costs by £3600 ($5300) per patient and societal costs by £7750 ($11,400). Savings are also substantial compared with treatment without early assessment, averaging £2100 ($3100) in health care costs, and £5700 ($8400) in societal costs. Results are most sensitive to estimates of patient care costs and the probability of patients reporting subjective memory complaints. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, early assessment leads to savings or is highly cost-effective in the majority of cases. Conclusions: Although early assessment has significant up-front costs, identifying AD patients at an early stage results in cost savings and health benefits compared with no treatment or treatment in the absence of early assessment. © 2012 The Alzheimers Association. All rights reserved. Source

Wortmann M.,Alzheimers Disease International | Andrieu S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | MacKell J.,Pfizer | Knox S.,Eisai Europe Ltd
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging

Understanding and appreciating the awareness of, and attitudes towards, Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the general public is of paramount importance to those charged with the development of health care policy. Furthermore, it is essential that this policy be formulated with consideration given to both the attitudes of the general population and to those within society more directly affected by AD; namely, the caregivers of patients with the disease. In the IMPACT survey, approximately 1000 members of the general public and 250 caregivers in 5 European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) completed a 30-minute, Web-based questionnaire. In this article, we compare and contrast the attitudes and opinions of these populations in an attempt to define specific themes. Indeed, caregivers were more concerned about consequences of growing old and were more fearful of AD than general public respondents, although a high proportion in both groups acknowledged the significant impact of the disease. Similarly, although most respondents in the 2 groups recognised that early signs and symptoms of AD are difficult to detect, caregivers were more skeptical of the abilities of both primary physicians and specialists to detect these early signs and symptoms. In terms of treatment, caregivers were less convinced of the effectiveness of treatment beyond the early stages of AD and more likely to agree that current treatments are associated with side effects. Respondents in both groups had a negative view of their government's investment in AD, but caregivers, particularly those in France, Spain and the United Kingdom, were more likely to feel that their government acts as a barrier to treatment. Some survey respondents from the 2 groups also had a negative view of their governments' attempts to raise awareness of AD and make its treatment a high priority. Overall, comparison of responses from these 2 groups suggests that caregivers' personal experiences of AD profoundly affect their attitudes and perceptions surrounding the disease. © 2010 Serdi and Springer Verlag France. Source

Jones R.W.,RICE The Research Institute for the Care of Older People | MacKell J.,Pfizer | Berthet K.,Pfizer | Knox S.,Eisai Europe Ltd
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging

The Important Perspectives on Alzheimer's Care and Treatment (IMPACT) survey is an assessment in Europe of the attitudes of caregivers, physicians, the general public and payors towards Alzheimer's disease and dementia. This was an Internet-based questionnaire study, which sought to determine the opinion and perception of responders on issues relating to ageing and dementia. There were additional questions for caregivers on the impact of caregiving on their life. Responses were analysed from 949 members of the general public, 500 physicians (generalists and specialists), 250 caregivers and 50 payors from 5 countries-France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. The survey highlighted the difficulty of diagnosing dementia, especially in the initial stages of the disease. The average time from first noticing symptoms to diagnosis varied from 36 to 63 weeks. Caregivers and the general public felt they had insufficient information about the benefits of treatment and care, although more than half the general public, caregiver and physician responders agreed that early treatment could delay the progression of the disease. The majority of respondents recognised the devastating effects of AD on caregivers and families, and a majority of caregivers, the general public and physicians agreed that their governments fail to view AD as a health care priority. This study occurs roughly 5 years after a similar survey, and provides a timely update. Despite some important differences between the methodologies used in these surveys, diagnosis of dementia is still a key issue, especially amongst generalists, as is the provision of information and support to caregivers. Despite the prevalence of AD in the ageing population of Europe, the perception within each of the 5 countries surveyed is that AD is not viewed as a health care priority. © 2010 Serdi and Springer Verlag France. Source

Robinson L.,Northumbria University | Knox S.,Eisai Europe Ltd | Lins K.,Pfizer
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging

Optimising the roles played by both generalists and specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could have a major impact on the quality and cost of patient care. Therefore, one aim of the IMPACT survey was to characterise the similarities and differences between these 2 categories of physicians, in 5 different European countries, across a number of domains relevant to the medical care of people at risk for AD and those with the disease. Physician respondents comprised 250 generalists and 250 specialists from 5 European countries-France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. A substantial majority of generalists were either general practitioners or family physicians; the majority of specialists were neurologists. In April and May 2009, physician respondents completed a 30-minute, Web-based questionnaire during which they were presented with a number of multiple-choice-type questions concerning their knowledge of AD, approach to diagnosis and treatment of AD and experience of providing care for people with dementia. Generalists reported that 45% of their AD patients had mild symptoms at the initial visit compared with 60% for specialists (P<0.001). Specialists claimed that they diagnose patients with AD themselves in 65% of cases versus 33% for generalists (P<0.001). The main prescription treatment options employed were AD-specific medication (90%) and medication for mood or behaviour (78%). A similar percentage of generalists and specialists (77% and 75%) initiate drug treatment within 1 month of diagnosis. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between specialists and generalists regarding a broad spectrum of issues relating to AD; differences between countries appear to be greater than differences between physician groups. © 2010 Serdi and Springer Verlag France. Source

Smith S.C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Lamping D.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Maclaine G.D.H.,Becton Dickinson | Maclaine G.D.H.,Eisai Europe Ltd
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice

We undertook a systematic review of disease-specific measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) to appraise the scientific (psychometric) evidence and make recommendations about the best instrument(s) to use. DPN is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. A need to consider the broad impact of DPN, rather than just pain and the increasingly recognised need to assess patient-reported outcomes such as HRQL in evaluating healthcare has led to a demand for rigorous outcome measures. To identify appropriate disease-specific measures, we searched four databases: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus. Data were extracted from each article using a standard data extraction form and the psychometric properties of each HRQL measure were reviewed. We identified three DPN-specific measures of HRQL: PN-QOL-97, Norfolk QOL-DN, NeuroQoL. All three measures satisfy at least one criterion for both reliability and validity, though all also have some disadvantages. Where there is no requirement for multi-language versions, the PN-QOL-97 is a useful instrument. Studies that involve multiple languages would need to use the shorter QOL-DN but would also need to incorporate complementary instruments to address the psychological and emotional impact of DPN. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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