Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit

Jakarta, Indonesia

Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit

Jakarta, Indonesia

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Piel F.B.,University of Oxford | Patil A.P.,University of Oxford | Howes R.E.,University of Oxford | Nyangiri O.A.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Background Reliable estimates of populations affected by diseases are necessary to guide efficient allocation of public health resources. Sickle haemoglobin (HbS) is the most common and clinically significant haemoglobin structural variant, but no contemporary estimates exist of the global populations affected. Moreover, the precision of available national estimates of heterozygous (AS) and homozygous (SS) neonates is unknown. We aimed to provide evidencebased estimates at various scales, with uncertainty measures. Methods Using a database of sickle haemoglobin surveys, we created a contemporary global map of HbS allele frequency distribution within a Bayesian geostatistical model. The pairing of this map with demographic data enabled calculation of global, regional, and national estimates of the annual number of AS and SS neonates. Subnational estimates were also calculated in data-rich areas. Findings Our map shows subnational spatial heterogeneities and high allele frequencies across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and India, as well as gene flow following migrations to western Europe and the eastern coast of the Americas. Accounting for local heterogeneities and demographic factors, we estimated that the global number of neonates affected by HbS in 2010 included 5 476 000 (IQR 5 291 000-5 679 000) AS neonates and 312 000 (294 000-330 000) SS neonates. These global estimates are higher than previous conservative estimates. Important differences predicted at the national level are discussed. Interpretation HbS will have an increasing effect on public health systems. Our estimates can help countries and the international community gauge the need for appropriate diagnoses and genetic counselling to reduce the number of neonates affected. Similar mapping and modelling methods could be used for other inherited disorders.


Wells T.N.C.,Medicines for Malaria Venture | Burrows J.N.,Medicines for Malaria Venture | Baird J.K.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Baird J.K.,University of Oxford
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2010

Plasmodium vivax is the major species of malaria parasite outside Africa. It is especially problematic in that the infection can relapse in the absence of mosquitoes by activation of dormant hypnozoites in the liver. Medicines that target the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum are also active against P. vivax, except where these have been compromised by resistance. However, the only clinical therapy against relapse of vivax malaria is the 8-aminoquinoline, primaquine. This molecule has the drawback of causing haemolysis in genetically sensitive patients and requires 14 days of treatment. New, safer and more-easily administered drugs are urgently needed, and this is a crucial gap in the broader malaria-elimination agenda. New developments in cell biology are starting to open ways to the next generation of drugs against hypnozoites. This search is urgent, given the time needed to develop a new medication. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ingram R.J.,Auckland City Hospital | Crenna-Darusallam C.,Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology | Soebianto S.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Noviyanti R.,University of Oxford | Baird J.K.,University of Oxford
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Primaquine is the only drug available for preventing relapse following a primary attack by Plasmodium vivax malaria. This drug imposes several important problems: daily dosing over two weeks; toxicity in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency; partner blood schizontocides possibly impacting primaquine safety and efficacy; cytochrome P-450 abnormalities impairing metabolism and therapeutic activity; and some strains of parasite may be tolerant or resistant to primaquine. There are many possible causes of repeated relapses in a patient treated with primaquine. Case description: A 56-year-old Caucasian woman from New Zealand traveled to New Ireland, Papua New Guinea for two months in 2012. One month after returning home she stopped daily doxycycline prophylaxis against malaria, and one week later she became acutely ill and hospitalized with a diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Over the ensuing year she suffered four more attacks of vivax malaria at approximately two-months intervals despite consuming primaquine daily for 14 days after each of those attacks, except the last. Genotype of the patient's cytochrome P-450 2D6 alleles (*5/*41) corresponded with an intermediate metabolizer phenotype of predicted low activity. Discussion: Multiple relapses in patients taking primaquine as prescribed present a serious clinical problem, and understanding the basis of repeated therapeutic failure is a challenging technical problem. This case highlights these issues in a single traveler, but these problems will also arise as endemic nations approach elimination of malaria transmission. © 2014 Ingram et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Kevin Baird J.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Kevin Baird J.,University of Oxford
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

Vivax malaria threatens patients despite relatively low-grade parasitemias in peripheral blood. The tenet of death as a rare outcome, derived from antiquated and flawed clinical classifications, disregarded key clinical evidence, including (i) high rates of mortality in neurosyphilis patients treated with vivax malaria; (ii) significant mortality from zones of endemicity; and (iii) the physiological threat inherent in repeated, very severe paroxysms in any patient, healthy or otherwise. The very well-documented course of this infection, with the exception of parasitemia, carries all of the attributes of "perniciousness" historically linked to falciparum malaria, including severe disease and fatal outcomes. A systematic analysis of the parasite biomass in severely ill patients that includes blood, marrow, and spleen may ultimately explain this historic misunderstanding. Regardless of how this parasite is pernicious, recent data demonstrate that the infection comes with a significant burden of morbidity and associated mortality. The extraordinary burden of malaria is not heavily weighted upon any single continent by a single species of parasite-it is a complex problem for the entire endemic world, and both species are of fundamental. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Baird J.K.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Baird J.K.,University of Oxford
Current Infectious Disease Reports | Year: 2012

Most malaria diagnosed outside endemic zones occurs in patients experiencing the consequences of what was likely a single infectious bite by an anopheline mosquito. A single species of parasite is nearly always involved and expert opinion on malaria chemotherapy uniformly prescribes species- and stage-specific treatments. However the vast majority of people experiencing malaria, those resident in endemic zones, do so repeatedly and very often with the involvement of two or more species and stages of parasite. Silent forms of these infections-asymptomatic and beyond the reach of diagnostics-may accumulate to form substantial and unchallenged reservoirs of infection. In such settings treating only the species and stage of malaria revealed by diagnosis and not others may not be sensible or appropriate. Developing therapeutic strategies that address all species and stages independently of diagnostic evidence may substantially improve the effectiveness of the control and elimination of endemic malaria. © The Author(s) 2012.


Baird J.K.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Baird J.K.,University of Oxford
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2012

Treatment of acutely ill patients, informed by a diagnosis of the species of Plasmodium involved, has long dominated strategic thinking in malaria chemotherapeutics. This bias for both acute illness and access to diagnosis resulted in therapeutic strategies poorly suited to malaria as it occurs in endemic zones. Most of those malarias do not provoke illness and occur beyond diagnostic reach for technical or practical reasons. Therapies effective against all species and stages would likely prove more practical in endemic zones, especially if safely administered without laboratory screening for contraindications. The primary impediment to such therapies is the mild to severe hemolytic toxicity of primaquine in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Primaquine is the only treatment licensed for therapy against relapse caused by dormant liver stages occurring in some species, and against the sexual blood stages responsible for transmission to mosquitoes in all species. Despite being licensed over 50. years ago, no alternative drugs have been developed, and safer dosing regimens of primaquine have not been explored. These failures forestalled the emergence of therapies practical for use in endemic zones, especially in the context of eliminating transmission. © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.


BACKGROUND: Primaquine is the only drug available for preventing relapse following a primary attack by Plasmodium vivax malaria. This drug imposes several important problems: daily dosing over two weeks; toxicity in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency; partner blood schizontocides possibly impacting primaquine safety and efficacy; cytochrome P-450 abnormalities impairing metabolism and therapeutic activity; and some strains of parasite may be tolerant or resistant to primaquine. There are many possible causes of repeated relapses in a patient treated with primaquine.CASE DESCRIPTION: A 56-year-old Caucasian woman from New Zealand traveled to New Ireland, Papua New Guinea for two months in 2012. One month after returning home she stopped daily doxycycline prophylaxis against malaria, and one week later she became acutely ill and hospitalized with a diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Over the ensuing year she suffered four more attacks of vivax malaria at approximately two-months intervals despite consuming primaquine daily for 14 days after each of those attacks, except the last. Genotype of the patient's cytochrome P-450 2D6 alleles (*5/*41) corresponded with an intermediate metabolizer phenotype of predicted low activity.DISCUSSION: Multiple relapses in patients taking primaquine as prescribed present a serious clinical problem, and understanding the basis of repeated therapeutic failure is a challenging technical problem. This case highlights these issues in a single traveler, but these problems will also arise as endemic nations approach elimination of malaria transmission.


Baird J.K.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Baird J.K.,University of Oxford
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2013

The maxim 'an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure' finds few better demonstrations than with malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax. Thoroughly neglected over the past 60 years, the chemotherapy of this complex infection has been dangerous and ineffective until the present. Work is at last being done, but seeing that translate to real improvements at the periphery of care delivery will take years of deliberate effort. In the meantime, patients face substantial risk of debilitating, threatening, and fatal courses of illness associated with a diagnosis of vivax malaria. For some of the most vulnerable to such outcomes - pregnant women and infants - repeated attacks of acute vivax malaria from a single infectious anopheline bite is now not preventable. One of the few measures than can be immediately applied with rigor is vector control, thereby effectively preventing as many of these difficult and dangerous infections as possible. This commentary emphasizes the dire consequences of infection by P. vivax and the real difficulty of dealing with them. That, in turn, emphasizes the many benefits to be derived by preventing them in the first place. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2013.


Price R.N.,University of Oxford | Price R.N.,Charles Darwin University | von Seidlein L.,Charles Darwin University | Valecha N.,National Institute of Malaria Research | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Chloroquine is the first-line treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria in most endemic countries, but resistance is increasing. Monitoring of antimalarial efficacy is essential, but in P vivax infections the assessment of treatment efficacy is confounded by relapse from the dormant liver stages. We systematically reviewed P vivax malaria treatment efficacy studies to establish the global extent of chloroquine resistance. Methods: We searched Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify studies published in English between Jan 1, 1960, and April 30, 2014, which investigated antimalarial treatment efficacy in P vivax malaria. We excluded studies that did not include supervised schizonticidal treatment without primaquine. We determined rates of chloroquine resistance according to P vivax malaria recurrence rates by day 28 whole-blood chloroquine concentrations at the time of recurrence and study enrolment criteria. Findings: We identified 129 eligible clinical trials involving 21 694 patients at 179 study sites and 26 case reports describing 54 patients. Chloroquine resistance was present in 58 (53%) of 113 assessable study sites, spread across most countries that are endemic for P vivax. Clearance of parasitaemia assessed by microscopy in 95% of patients by day 2, or all patients by day 3, was 100% predictive of chloroquine sensitivity. Interpretation: Heterogeneity of study design and analysis has confounded global surveillance of chloroquine-resistant P vivax, which is now present across most countries endemic for P vivax. Improved methods for monitoring of drug resistance are needed to inform antimalarial policy in these regions. Funding: Wellcome Trust (UK). © 2014 Price et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC-BY.


Baird J.K.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Baird J.K.,University of Oxford
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease | Year: 2013

Despite inadequacy in preventing vivax malaria after travel, suppressive chemoprophylaxis has dominated travel medicine strategy since the advent of chloroquine in 1946. The lethal threat of falciparum malaria versus the perceived benign consequence of vivax malaria underpins this strategic posture. Recent evidence demonstrating vivax malaria as often pernicious should prompt reconsideration of that posture. Causal prophylaxis kills early developing forms of plasmodia in the liver, thus preventing attacks of falciparum and vivax malaria during travel and delayed onset vivax malaria following travel. Primaquine is the only available drug for this application, and has good evidence of safety, tolerability and efficacy in non-pregnant, G6PD-normal travelers. The primaquine label, however, carries no such indication. Risk of pernicious vivax malaria from all across the endemic regions of the globe, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, should raise consideration of daily primaquine during travel as the preferred front-line option for chemoprophylaxis against malaria in travelers.

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