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Seidl I.,Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Wald
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2015

Future land use may well lead to increasing conflicts between the competing demands for this scarce and limited resource given demands, interests and societal developments. Three approaches to dealing with land use are proposed: multifunctionality, quality of land use and sufficiency. Additionally, beauty needs to gain in importance. The foundation for the proposed approaches needs to be an institutional and cultural transformation that includes the construction industry, the ideological basis of municipal planning, as well as the societal drive for growth, and money creation.

Hirschi C.,ETH Zurich | Huber R.,Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Wald
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2012

This contribution reveals how the agricultural provision of ecosystem services in Switzerland is supported by the agricultural policy making process. Based on the analysis of the agricultural policy reform processes AP 2011 and AP 14-17, the policy network and the policy positions of the individual network actors with respect to a further greening of the agricultural policy are identified. The results reveal the willingness of the actors to strengthen and to support the provision of ecosystem services with targeted direct payments. To secure such payments in the long run, two aspects have to be taken into account: i) the linkage of a further greening of the agricultural policy with concomitant policy changes such as market liberalization or deregulation and ii) the development of the overall economy as well as the budget of the public authorities.

Kaufmann E.,Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Wald
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2011

In the Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI), the data collected in the three inventories (NFI1 1983-1985, NFI2 1993-1995, NFI3 2004-2006) provide the basis not only for analysing the present state of the forest and how it has developed up to now, but also for assessing, with the help of models, how it might develop in future. The scenario model «Massimo 3», developed at the Swiss Federal Institut for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, is an empirical and stochastic simulation model. It relies on data from the NFI and forecasts the development of the forest according to how it is managed. Six scenarios with different management regimes were defined according to the economic, silvicultural and ecological aspects considered. In three scenarios the growing stock is kept constant at the level of NFI3, but different management strategies are used (Scenario A: basis [business as usual], Scenario E: even-aged forests are transformed into uneven-aged forests, and Scenario F: near-natural percentages of conifers are promoted). In two scenarios forest management is partially abandoned for either ecological reasons (Scenario B: reservations, 10% of the forest area is left unmanaged) or for economic reasons (Scenario C: harvesting costs, 40% of the forest area is left unmanaged). Scenario D (rotation periods are shortened) was used to study the effects of augmenting the annual harvesting amount. A forecasting time period of 100 years was selected to assess the long-term effects of the scenarios. Scenarios A, D, and E show that the sustainable harvesting potential of merchantable wood lies in a relatively narrow range of 7.1 to 7.3 million m3/year, even though in Scenario D the growing stock is reduced from 360 m3/ha to 305 m3/ha. In Scenario F regeneration is systematically established with near-natural percentages of conifers, the long-term harvesting potential is slightly less: about 6.5 million m3/year of merchantable wood. If forest management is abandoned for economic reasons on as much as 40% of the forest area (Scenario C, harvesting costs), the impact on the wood reserves is very negative.

Brassel P.,Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Wald
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2011

The idea of carrying out a national forest inventory in Switzerland was first raised in the 1950s. It had become increasingly evident that such an inventory was lacking as a basis for evaluating the state of the forest in the whole country. But it was not until 1970 that this idea took concrete shape. And it took another ten years for the Swiss government to agree to the first inventory taking place. From the start, the National Forest Inventory (NFI) was a joint project of the Swiss federal administration and the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL. It has now established itself as an objective source of information about the Swiss forest. On the national level, it is today the most important instrument for monitoring the sustainability of the management of Swiss forests, and it yields the main data needed for international reports on forests. The success of the NFI is at least partly due to the fact that it has met with widespread support from both the Swiss authorities and scientists. The NFI has, over the past 30 years, continuously developed both methodologically and in terms of content. Thus the first NFI's data catalogue was expanded to include, for example, numerous ecological parameters. Currently the fourth NFI is underway. It will mark the transition from a periodic to a continuous inventory. In the future, the survey results will be published roughly every three years. Reducing the intervals between inventories will, however, be associated with higher estimation errors. On the other hand, interesting new applications can be expected in remote sensing, as well as improved models of future forest development. Some new methods seem promising, like the so-called "small area estimation", which enables conclusions to be drawn about relatively small areas. However, if the NFI is to continue to perform its tasks adequately in future, it must receive sufficient funding.

There is an increasing interest on area-wide and high-resolution data of forest composition. In Switzerland, tree species distribution will be considered periodically by the Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI), but the claims will be only partly fulfilled by the existing forest type maps since they are relatively poor regarding spatial accuracy, updating, and reproducibility. Providing consistent, reproducible and up-to-date information on various forest parameters is the main advantage of using the latest remote sensing data and methods. New possibilities are given by the airborne digital sensor ADS80, which records the entire country during the vegetation season every six years. This paper presents a robust methodology of classifying tree species in different study areas. The obtained accuracies for beech, ash, Norway spruce, Scots pine, larch, willow and silver fir are in average 71-85%, but lower for other deciduous tree species. These are mainly less dominant tree species within a study area such as maple and birch. A small sample data set and shadows of other neighboring trees seem to be the main reasons for this. Based on the experiences made in this study, a country-wide classification of tree species has become more feasible. The usage of airborne digital sensor ADS80 data in combination with a high degree of automation from the developed methods will enable the generation of country-wide products on the distinction of coniferous and deciduous tree species until 2015.

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