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Matsuyama, Japan

Ehime University is a Japanese national university in Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan. The university has one of the largest student populations in the Shikoku region.After Japan's defeat in World War II, Aidai was established in May 1949 among many other national universities by the Japanese government during the reformation of the education system. The university originally had three Faculties : Humanities and Science, Education, and Engineering; which were consolidated from Matsuyama National High School , Ehime Prefectural Teachers School , Ehime Prefectural Youth Teachers School , and Ehime Prefectural Niihama Technical School .Today, the university has six faculties and five graduate schools. Wikipedia.

Riboswitches are RNA elements in mRNA that control gene expression in cis in response to their specific ligands. Because artificial riboswitches make it possible to regulate any gene with an arbitrary molecule, they are expected to function as biosensors, in which the output is easily detectable protein expression. I report herein a fully rational design strategy for artificially constructing novel riboswitches that work in a eukaryotic cell-free translation system (wheat germ extract). In these riboswitches, translation mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is promoted only in the presence of a specific ligand (ON), while it is inhibited in the absence of the ligand (OFF). The first rationally designed riboswitch, which is regulated by theophylline, showed a high switching efficiency and dependency on theophylline. In addition, based on the design of the theophylline-dependent riboswitch, other three kinds of riboswitches controlled by FMN, tetracycline, and sulforhodamine B, were constructed only by calculating the ΔG value of one stem - loop structure. The rational design strategy described herein is therefore useful for easily producing various ligand-dependent riboswitches, which are available as biosensors for detecting their ligands. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Copyright © 2011 RNA Society.

Although epidemiological studies in the US and Europe have confirmed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, evidence is limited in Japan. Earlier studies in Japan showed that hypertension has a major effect on atherosclerosis in relatively lean subjects, with type 2 DM contributing more to CVD events, because of a decline in blood pressure levels in both sexes and an increase in body mass index in men. Recent cohort studies in Japan using baseline assessments carried out during the 1990 s have confirmed that type 2 DM is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and all types of stroke, except hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, the metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic risk factors, was shown to predict CVD events in Japanese people, independent of the presence or absence of obesity. The strong association of type 2 DM with CHD (hazard ratio: 1.5-4) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio: 2-4) events was confirmed in Japanese adults. Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose were also shown to have an increased risk of a CHD event, but not a stroke.

Kamao T.,Ehime University
American journal of ophthalmology | Year: 2011

To evaluate the newly developed Ocular Surface Thermographer (TOMEY Corporation) for dry eye screening. Prospective, controlled study. We studied 30 eyes of 30 patients diagnosed with dry eye (mean age ± standard deviation, 52.9 ± 17.1 years) and 30 eyes of 30 normal subjects (42.7 ± 17.0 years). The ocular surface temperature was measured immediately after eye opening and every second during 10 seconds of eye opening. The reliability of the measurements was determined by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients. Then, the correlations between the change in the ocular surface temperature and tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test values, and fluorescein staining scores were determined. The measurements of the ocular surface temperature had a high degree of reliability. Immediately after eye opening, the temperature in the dry eye did not differ significantly from that in normal eyes in any of the 3 regions tested. The decrease in the ocular surface temperature in dry eyes was significantly greater than that in normal eyes (P < .001) at 10 seconds after eye opening. The decrease in the temperature of the cornea was correlated significantly with the tear film break-up time (r = -0.572; P < .001). When the changes in ocular surface temperature of the cornea were used as an index for dry eye, the sensitivity was 0.83 and the specificity was 0.80 after 10 seconds. Measurements of the ocular surface temperature obtained with our newly developed Ocular Surface Thermographer after 10 seconds of eye opening may provide a simple, noninvasive screening test for dry eyes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The combination of sarcopenia and obesity, an age-related change in body composition, is a concern in the aged society. Sarcopenic obesity is not the combination of two conditions, but is more related to cardio-metabolic and functional abnormalities. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with more physical functional decline than simple obesity. Sarcopenic obesity may be more insulin resistant, and have a higher risk for metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis than simple obesity. However, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity differs substantially among studies because of the lack of a standard definition. For further understanding of the pathophysiological role of sarcopenic obesity, a standardized definition for both sarcopenia and obesity is necessary. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Hori H.,Ehime University
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2014

To date, more than 90 modified nucleosides have been found in tRNA and the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s). Recent studies of the biosynthetic pathways have demonstrated that the availability of methyl group donors for the methylation in tRNA is important for correct and efficient protein synthesis. In this review, I focus on the methylated nucleosides and tRNA methyltransferases. The primary functions of tRNA methylations are linked to the different steps of protein synthesis, such as the stabilization of tRNA structure, reinforcement of the codon-anticodon interaction, regulation of wobble base pairing, and prevention of frameshift errors. However, beyond these basic functions, recent studies have demonstrated that tRNA methylations are also involved in the RNA quality control system and regulation of tRNA localization in the cell. In a thermophilic eubacterium, tRNA modifications and the modification enzymes form a network that responses to temperature changes. Furthermore, several modifications are involved in genetic diseases, infections, and the immune response. Moreover, structural, biochemical, and bioinformatics studies of tRNA methyltransferases have been clarifying the details of tRNA methyltransferases and have enabled these enzymes to be classified. In the final section, the evolution of modification enzymes is discussed. © 2014 Hori.

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