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Gallopel-Morvan K.,EHESP School of Public Health | Moodie C.,University of Stirling | Martinet Y.,University of Lorraine
Tobacco Control

Background We explored, for the first time, young adult roll-your-own smokers’ response to using plain packaging in real-world settings. Methods Naturalistic research was employed, where 133 French young adult smokers (18–25 years of age) used plain roll-your-own packs for 10 days; the plain packs they were provided with contained their usual brand of rolling tobacco and displayed the name of their usual brand. Participants were recruited in five cities in France (Paris, Marseille, Metz, Nantes, Toulouse) and completed two questionnaires to measure their response to their own branded packs and the plain packs. Both questionnaires assessed pack perceptions, brand attachment, product perceptions (eg, taste, quality, natural), feelings about smoking (satisfying, pleasurable), feelings when using the pack in front of others (embarrassment, image), warning response (credibility, awareness of risks) and smoking-related behaviour (eg, consumption, quitting). Results Compared to their own fully branded packs, plain packs were associated with less positive pack and product perceptions, lower brand attachment and less positive feelings about smoking and feelings when using the pack in front of others. Participants were also more likely to report feeling like reducing consumption and quitting when using the plain packs, and more likely to feel like missing out on rolling a cigarette. No significant differences between the two pack types ( plain and branded) were found in terms of credibility of warnings and perceptions of level of tar. Conclusions The study suggests that the impacts of plain packaging for roll-your-own cigarette smokers are the same as for smokers of factory-made cigarettes. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Martin C.,EHESP School of Public Health
Journal of European Social Policy

French family policy is generally considered as one of the oldest, most explicit and extensive in Europe. To understand the changes in this public policy sector during the past decades, we first discuss the roots and scope of family policy and then propose a 'process tracing' to identify sequences, based on two sets of opposing principles that have shaped French family policy history: universality versus selectivity and French 'familialisme' versus individualism. In the last two sections, a detailed analysis of the dynamics of change is presented before focusing on the role of the different protagonists of this change: political actors, high-ranking civil servants, family associations and experts. We underline the importance of a small group of high-ranking civil servants, called the 'welfare elite', in this specific sector, whose contribution explains the permanent French specificity and path dependency. © The Author(s), 2010. Source

Albert O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Albert O.,University of Rennes 1 | Je'gou B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Je'gou B.,University of Rennes 1 | Je'gou B.,EHESP School of Public Health
Human Reproduction Update

background: A very large proportion of the literature on the endocrine disruptors categorized as anti-androgens deals with phthalates, which are produced in large amounts for use as plastic emollients and additives. In this review, we bring together and analyse work on the effects of phthalates in animals and humans at different stages of their development to assess whether or not their possible anti-androgenic properties represent a significant threat to human health. methods: The database PubMed was systematically searched for all English language articles until July 2013 in each subject area discussed. results:We provide an up-to-date exhaustive, comparative and critical assessment of both in vivo and in vitro studies undertaken to explore the effects of phthalates on the human testis from fetal life to adulthood. These results are compared and discussed in the light of the key data reported in the literature for mice and rats. conclusions: Thecurrent literature highlights the fact that (i) there is a huge difference betweenthe numberof studies performed in animals and in humans, with many fewer for humans; (ii) there are differences in the way rats, mice, primates and humans respond to phthalates, for reasons that need to be further explored; (iii) more work is required to clarify the contradictions, in the few existing human epidemiological studies at all stages of development, which may be partly explained by varying methods of exposure assessment; (iv) in accordance with recent findings in rodents, it cannot be excluded that transgenerational effects of phthalates and/or epigenetic changes exist in humans; (v) a number of methodological limitations need to be solved for the in vitro and xenografting models using human fetal testis to fulfil their 'missing link' role between epidemiological studies in humans and rodent models; and (vi) epidemiological and in vitro studies generally converge sufficiently to conclude that phthalate anti-androgenicity is plausible in adult men. © The Author 2013. Source

O'Donnell S.,EHESP School of Public Health | Meyer I.H.,Columbia University | Schwartz S.,Columbia University
American Journal of Public Health

Members of racial/ethnic minority groups have a lower lifetime prevalence than have Whites of mental disorders, a risk factor for suicide attempts; paradoxically, however, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) ethnic minority youths may be at increased risk for suicide attempts relative to White LGB youths. We found that the increased risk of suicide attempts among racial/ethnic minority LGB respondents in our sample relative to White respondents was not explained by excess youth onset of depression and substance abuse or by a higher susceptibility to suicide in the racial/ethnic minority LGB group. Source

Le Bihan B.,EHESP School of Public Health
Health and Social Care in the Community

This article investigates the impact of policy measures on the organisation of home-based care for older people in France, by examining the balance between formal and informal care and the redefinition of the initial familialist model. It focuses on the specific cash for care scheme (the Allocation personnalisée d'autonomie - Personalised allowance for autonomy) which is at the core of the French home-based care policy. The author argues that in a redefined context of 'welfare mix', the French public strategy for supporting home-based care in France is articulated around two major objectives, which can appear contradictory. It aims to formalise a professional care sector, with respect to the employment policy while allowing the development of new forms of informal care, which cannot be considered to be formal employment. The data collection is two-fold. Firstly, a detailed analysis was made of different policy documents and public reports, together with a systematic review of existing studies. Secondly, statistical analysis on home-based care resources were collected, which was not easy, as home-care services for older people in France are part of a larger sector of activity, 'personal services' (services à la personne). The article exposes three main findings. First, it highlights the complexity of the formalisation process related to the introduction of the French care allowance and demonstrates that formalisation, which facilitates the recognition of care as work, does not necessarily mean professionalisation. Second, it outlines the diversity of the resources available: heterogeneous professional care, semi-formal forms of care work with the possibility to employ a relative and informal family care. Finally, the analysis outlines the importance of the regulation of cash payments on the reshaping of formal and informal care and comments on its impact on the redefinition of informal caring activities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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