Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation

Wagga Wagga, Australia

Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation

Wagga Wagga, Australia
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Tan S.H.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | Tan S.H.,Charles Sturt University | Mailer R.J.,NSW DPI | Blanchard C.L.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Canola protein albumin fraction, globulin fraction, and canola protein isolate (CPI) were compared to commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) in terms of their emulsifying properties at various pH values. The globulin fraction had higher emulsifying capacity (EC), higher emulsifying activity index (EAI), and the droplet size of emulsions it stabilized was consistently smaller irrespective of pH compared to albumin fraction or CPI. In comparison to SPI, globulin fractions also had higher EC at all pH values tested, higher EAI at acidic pH, and smaller or comparable average emulsion droplet size at both pH 4 and 7. The stability of canola protein based emulsions were comparable to those of SPI based emulsions at most pH values (except the emulsion stabilized by the CPI at pH 4), with no significant (p<0.05) changes in droplet size during storage for up to 7 days at room temperature. These emulsions, however, experienced separation into the emulsion and serum phases after 24h storage at room temperature with the exception of CPI- and SPI-stabilized emulsions at pH 9. This study demonstrates the comparable emulsifying properties (forming or stabilizing) of some canola proteins to commercially available SPI, suggesting the potential use of canola proteins in food applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Alashi A.M.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | Alashi A.M.,Charles Sturt University | Alashi A.M.,University of Manitoba | Blanchard C.L.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | And 11 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

The in vitro and in vivo antihypertensive activities of canola protein hydrolysates and ultrafiltration membrane fractions (<. 1, 1-3, 3-5, & 5-10. kDa) were examined in this study. The hydrolysates were obtained after 4. h enzyme hydrolysis of canola protein isolate (CPI) using each of Alcalase, chymotrypsin, pepsin, trypsin and pancreatin. The hydrolysates had significantly (p. <. 0.05) reduced (35-70%) surface hydrophobicity when compared to the CPI. Alcalase hydrolysate contained the highest level of low molecular weight peptides and produced highest (p. <. 0.05) in vitro inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. However, pancreatin hydrolysate was the most effective (63.2%) in vitro renin inhibitor. Membrane fractionation of pancreatin hydrolysate led to a 15% reduction in renin inhibition by the 1-3. kDa peptide fraction. In contrast, ACE and renin inhibitions were significantly (p. <. 0.05) increased by 10-20% after membrane ultrafiltration fractionation of the trypsin hydrolysate. Trypsin hydrolysate was ineffective at reducing hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats after oral administration (200. mg/kg body weight). However, Alcalase and pepsin hydrolysates showed appreciable antihypertensive effects, with Alcalase hydrolysate producing the greatest (34. mm. Hg) and fastest (4. h) decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP). CPI had the most prolonged (24. h) SBP-reducing effect, which is attributable to the extensive protein hydrolysis in the GIT. We conclude that the Alcalase and pepsin hydrolysates may serve as useful ingredients to formulate antihypertensive functional foods and nutraceuticals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Tan S.H.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | Tan S.H.,Charles Sturt University | Tan S.H.,Industrial Transformation Training Center for Functional Grains | Mailer R.J.,NSW DPI | And 6 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Gelling properties of canola albumin and globulin fractions, and canola protein isolate (CPI) were examined in this study. The effects of pH and salt concentration on canola protein gelling properties were studied primarily by means of dynamic oscillatory rheology and gel texture analysis. The findings were supported by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of the gels, isoelectric point, and solubility measurement data. All canola proteins showed typical heat-set gel protein profiles. Gels formed at higher pH had better gelling properties including higher overall resistance to deformation (G*), higher gel elasticity (low tan δ ), higher fracture stress and firmness, and denser gel microstructure. Isoelectric points of canola proteins used in this study were in the range of pH. 3.0-4.7 where low protein solubility was observed. The albumin fraction was able to form a very weak gel at pH. 4, whereas the globulin fraction and CPI precipitated due to loss of protein surface charge. The effects of NaCl on gelling were protein sample dependent. The presence of NaCl negatively affected gelling properties of albumin and globulin fractions, with decreases in overall resistance to deformation (G*), and fracture stress and firmness, but positively affected CPI gels in the same aspects. The elasticity (tan δ) of all canola protein gels remained constant in the presence of NaCl. Frequency sweep analysis revealed that the albumin fraction and CPI formed weak gels, whereas the globulin fraction formed a strong gel. Strain sweep analysis further confirmed that the globulin fraction formed a stronger gel with a critical strain of at least 10%. This study demonstrates the high potential of canola proteins, particularly the globulin fraction, as a prospective gelling agent. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

In this study we compare the effects of two contrasting grazing regimes (time-controlled grazing (TCG) vs set-stocked grazing (SSG)) on selected parameters of soil biological health. The purpose of the study was to evaluate these soil parameters as potential indicators of soil health and thence sustainable soil management. Two parameters, viz., arthropod biological diversity and soil respiration were chosen as reliable indicators of soil health. Samples of pasture cover, arthropod populations, and soil from varied depths were obtained in spring (September-November 2010) and autumn (March-May 2011). Results from the autumn showed a strong effect of time-controlled grazing with increased arthropod abundance and enhanced soil biological respiration while in spring the differences were not significant. It was concluded that a change to short-duration rotational grazing can be beneficial to soil biological health in the longer term and that the measurement of arthropods present in the litter and topsoil can be a simple yet effective indicator of the impact of grazing regime on soil health. © 2012, Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Khan A.N.,Charles Sturt University | Raman A.,Charles Sturt University | Raman A.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | Dhileepan K.,Queensland Government | Hodgkins D.S.,Charles Sturt University
Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France | Year: 2013

. Management of the invasive Vachellia nilotica indica infesting tropical grasslands of Northern Australia has remained unsuccessful to date. Presently Anomalococcus indicus is considered a potential agent in the biological management of V. n. indica. Whereas generic biological details of A. indicus have been known, their feeding activity and details of their mouthparts and the sensory structures that are associated with their feeding action are not known. This paper provides details of those gaps. Nymphal instars I and II feed on cortical-parenchyma cells of young stems of V. n. indica, whereas nymphal instars III and adult females feed on phloem elements of older shoots. Nymphal instars and adults (females) trigger stress symptoms in the feeding tissue with cells bearing enlarged and disfigured nuclei, cytoplasmic shrinkage, cytoplasmic trabeculae, abnormal protuberances and uneven cell wall thickening, unusual cell membrane proliferation, and exhausted and necrosed cells. Continuous nutrient extraction by A. indicus can cause stem death. We provide evidence that A. indicus, by virtue of its continuous feeding activity and intense population build up, can be an effective biological-management agent to regulate populations of V. n. indica in infested areas. © 2014 © 2014 Société entomologique de France.

Mbuthia E.W.,Charles Sturt University | Shariff J.H.,Charles Sturt University | Raman A.,Charles Sturt University | Raman A.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Forest Science | Year: 2012

Shelterbelts are important for the sustainability of agriculture because they provide a variety of benefits to farmers and the society. Several published papers demonstrate that integration of shelterbelts with agroecosystems offers positive outcomes, such as better yield, more congenial microclimate, and greater organic matter levels. Nonetheless, soil biological diversity, the driver of greater organic matter levels, has not been convincingly tested and verified yet. In addressing this gap, we measured abundance and diversity of populations of arthropods and fungi in three 11-year old shelterbelts integrated with pasture to determine whether a correlation exists between the abundance of and diversity in populations of arthropods and fungi in two seasons: late autumn-early winter (May-June 2011) and late winter-early spring (August-September 2011). Litter from the soil surface and soil from two depths were sampled at increasing distance from the midpoint of shelterbelts for the extraction of arthropods and isolation culturing of fungi. The relationship among distance, depth and biodiversity of different groups of arthropods and fungi was analysed using linear regression. We found that over both seasons arthropod abundance in the litter and soil declined with increasing distance from the midpoint of the shelterbelts, and with soil depth. However, fungi abundance in either season was not affected by proximity to the shelterbelt but increased with greater soil depth. Distance from the shelterbelt midpoints did not bear an impact on the diversity richness of both arthropods and fungi. Copyright © J. FOR. SCI., 2012.

Liu D.L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Liu D.L.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | Chan K.Y.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Chan K.Y.,Eh Graham Center For Agricultural Innovation | And 5 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2011

Recently, soil carbon sequestration in agro-ecosystems has been attracting significant interest as soil organic carbon (SOC) can potentially offset some atmospheric carbon dioxide. The objectives of this study were to use the RothC model to simulate soil carbon sequestration and determine the proportion of pasture production as carbon input for SOC sequestration under different pasture types and pasture management in a long term experiment established in 1992. There were two types of pastures, annual and perennial pastures, with or without application of limestone. Simulation results showed that with an initial setting for the stubble retention factor of 0.65 and root/shoot ratio of 0.5 for annual pasture and 1.0 for perennial pasture, RothC can adequately simulate SOC for both pasture types, especially annual pasture. Using an inverse modelling technique, the root/shoot ratio was determined as 0.49 and 0.57 for annual pasture and 0.72 and 0.76 for perennial pasture with and without limestone application, respectively. There was a large improvement in model performance for perennial pasture with and without limestone application. The root mean squared errors (RMSE) reduced from 3.19 and 2.99tCha-1 in the initial settings to 2.09 and 2.10tCha-1, while performance efficiency (PE) increased from 0.89 and 0.91 to the same value of 0.95 when the root/shoot ratio of 0.72 and 0.76 were used for limed and unlimed perennial pastures. However, there was little improvement for annual pasture as RMSE had little change and PE was the same. As the stubble retention factor and root/shoot ratio can be combined into one factor that measures an equivalent amount of total above-ground pasture production allocated for soil carbon input, the modelled results can be summarised as 1.2 times and 1.4 times the above-ground dry matter for annual and for perennial pasture, respectively, regardless of liming. Our results provide useful information for simulation of soil carbon sequestration under continuous pasture systems. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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