Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology

Al Jizah, Egypt

Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology

Al Jizah, Egypt

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Mahmoud S.S.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology | Torchilin V.P.,Northeastern University
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

In this study, we investigate the possible cytotoxic effects of different Nigella sativa seed extracts on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and screening the effects of a wide range of extracts concentrations and their application as an adjuvant therapy to doxorubicin. The results obtained showed that the cytotoxic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide can be used for permeation assay in concentration range 697.5-0.341 mmol/ml without affecting the viability of MCF-7 cells. N. sativa lipid extract is cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells with LC50 of 2.72 ± 0.232 mg/ml, while its aqueous extract cytotoxicity exhibited when the applied concentration is high as ≈ 50 mg/ml. The results of this study reveal for the first time that low concentrations of aqueous extract of the seed has a hormetic rather than cytotoxic effect. It is also possible to use cell culture medium or bovine serum to dilute the oil extract for the permeation assay. In conclusion, N. sativa aqueous extract should not be used as antitumor compound by its own. The oil is a promising antitumor compound and its cytotoxicity was greatly enhanced with its nanoemulsion formulation. Antitumor activity of doxorubicin was enhanced, as a function of time, when N. sativa extracts were involved as adjunct therapeutic compounds. Adding doxorubicin to the prepared lipid nanoemulsion has a beneficial impact to their bioactivity. These doxorubicin-N. sativa lipid nanoemulsion are promising and potential therapeutic modality. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Taher E.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Türkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Türkiye Parazitoloji Derneǧi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology | Year: 2012

Four plant extracts possessing molluscicidal and insecticidal efficacy were evaluated under laboratory conditions versus Biomphalaria alexandrina, Lymnea cailliaudi snails, their egg masses and Culex pipiens larvae. These extracts included Grape seed, Eucalyptus, Pomegranate, Verbesina alcoholic extracts, as well as Eucalyptus oil. Different mortalities in the exposed vectors were recorded due to the four plant extracts using different concentrations and exposure time. Total snail mortality LC < sub > 100 < /sub > was (100 ppm/12-24h) for Grape seed, (200 ppm/18-24h) for Eucalyptus, (100 ppm/12-18h) for Pomegranate, (100-200 ppm/24h) for Verbesina alcoholic extracts and (100-200 ppm/12h) for Eucalyptus oil. However, only Eucalyptus, Verbesina alcoholic extracts and Eucalyptus oil revealed snail ovicidal effects. LC < sub > 100 < /sub > was (100-200 ppm/24h), (100-200 ppm/24h) & (100-200 ppm/12-48h) respectively. Moreover, the same plant extracts were able to induce total Culex pipiens larvicidal mortality, LC < sub > 100 < /sub > was (200 ppm/48h). However, Grape seed and Pomegranate alcoholic extracts did not induce either snail ovicidal or Culex pipiens larvicidal total mortalities. Activities of the studied plant extracts were considered using reference molluscicidal (Copper sulfate) and insecticidal (Temephos) substances. Egyptian native plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may have a promising role in the production of safe, biodegradable eco-friendly and natural molluscicidal and insecticidal agents.

Abdelkawi S.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
International Journal of Radiation Biology | Year: 2012

Purpose: This study was aimed at determining the effect of whole body irradiation with single and fractionated low doses of γ-radiation on the structure of normal rats lens crystallin with the concept of correlating this with the changes in its molecular weight. Materials and methods: Three groups of Wistar albino rats were involved in this study; the first group is the control (n 10) and the second group (n 10) treated with a single dose of 4.0 Gy administered in one application from Cesium-137. The third group (n 60) was treated for 8 weeks with fractionated dose rate of 0.5 Gy/week. Lens crystallin was analysed for protein content measurements and column chromatography. Results: Measurements of total soluble lens protein indicated pronounced decreases after exposure to single and fractionated doses of γ-radiation. The molecular weights and the protein content for the βH (with high molecular weight), βL (with low molecular weight) and γ-crystallin fractions revealed generalized alteration for all groups. Conclusion: Single and fractionated doses of γ-radiations induced lens crystallin changes that might lead to development of cataract due to induction of cross-linking and aggregation. βH-crystallin was the most stable against radiation induced damage, and the molecular weight of γ-crystallin was the most sensitive to gamma radiation. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Elsaftawy H.S.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Cornea | Year: 2015

PURPOSE:: To assess the clinical outcomes after sequential surgical implantation of intracorneal ring segments and transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (TE-CXL) in keratoconic eyes. METHODS:: In this consecutive randomized study, 40 eyes of 29 patients with progressive mild to moderate keratoconus were included and were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 included 20 eyes that underwent Keraring implantation, and group 2 included 20 eyes that underwent Keraring insertion followed by TE-CXL 1 month later. In both groups, channel creation was performed manually. Visual, refractive, and topographic outcomes were measured preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS:: There was statistically significant improvement in both groups regarding uncorrected distance visual acuity (P < 0.001) and corrected distance visual acuity (P < 0.001), with a significant reduction in the refractive error and keratometric values (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding changes in uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and refractive error (P > 0.05). However, group 2 revealed a more statistically significant reduction in spherical refraction after 3 months (P = 0.04) and highly significant improvement after 6 months (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS:: Intracorneal ring segment implantation is an effective procedure for visual and refractive improvement in keratoconic eyes. The addition of TE-CXL to the procedure compensates for residual superficial irregularities, disrupts the progression of the disease, and provides greater improvements in spherical values. The process is simply a deep stretch with superficial lamellar stiffness. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Abdelkawi S.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
General physiology and biophysics | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in corneal protein and oxidative stress state after using photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of experimental corneal neovascularization (NV) with benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD). One group was considered as control (N = 10 eyes), corneal NV was induced in 25 New Zealand male rabbits (N = 50 eyes) after placing silk sutures in the corneal limbus. Five rabbits with corneal NV were left without any treatment, and 20 rabbits were administered by intravenous injection with Verteporfin at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg. Diode laser (660 nm) was applied for 5 minutes with a power of 50 mW/cm2. For a period of 4 weeks, five rabbits were selected and sacrificed weekly (N = 10 eyes each). The corneas were isolated for determination of protein content, SDS-PAGE, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative capacity (TOC), malondialdhyde (MDA) and oxidative stress index (OSI). The results indicated that corneal NV induced changes in the content and composition on the corneal protein and gradual improvement of the cornea after the 3rd and 4th week of PDT was detected. Furthermore, the oxidative/antioxidative balance shifted towards the antioxidative status that helped to prevent further damage.

Mahmoud S.S.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2010

In developed countries, medical awareness about the disease and how to deal with it is less acknowledged. With diabetes mellitus the situation becomes more serious due to the fact that it affects nearly all parts of the body and may lead to loss of vision. In this study, the variation of blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients was considered, and its effect(s) on their blood erythrocyte membranes was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were classified into two groups with mean fasting blood glucose level of 185 mg/dl (D-185 group) and 285 mg/dl (D-285 group). For comparison, healthy individuals were involved where their mean fasting blood glucose level is 86 mg/dl. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found to induce change in the lipid and protein components and causing some important structural changes in the protein secondary structure with change in the β-sheet and β-turn structures at D-285 mg/dl group. Erythrocyte membrane disorder was increased associated with restriction in the vibrational motion around the phospholipids interface region. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ibrahim M.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Gawad A.E.-D.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2012

As a result of emerging applications of chitosan this paper is dedicated to study the possible interaction of amino acids with chitosan. Semiemperical molecular modeling technique is applied to assess the interaction of amino acids (alanine, asparagines, aspartic, arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine and tryptophan) with chitosan. Results indicate the selectivity of chitosan furthermore we introduce the site whereas amino acid could interact with chitosan. Chitosan is interacting with amino acid through NH2 group. It is concluded that chitosan is acting with amino acids like protein interaction which dedicate chitosan for many applications in the biological system. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.

Soliman G.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Türkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Türkiye Parazitoloji Derneǧi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology | Year: 2011

Three commonly used antihelmenthic drugs including Dormectin (0.2 mg/kg), Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) and Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg) were examined for their antihelmenthic efficacy against experimental Trichinella spiralis infection in rats. One hundred and twenty rats were orally infected with 500 T. spiralis larvae. Drugs were tested against adult worms at 4th day, against migrating larvae at 10th days and against encysted larvae at 35th day post infection (dpi). Rats were sacrificed five days post treatment. Mature worms and migrating larvae counts were detected. Significant effect was detected in rats treated with Dormectin and Ivermectin compared to non-treated controls. Dormectin showed an efficacy of 97.75% and 86.23% in eliminating both mature worms and migrating larvae respectively. Ivermectin showed an efficacy of 94.99% and 83.85% respectively. However, Levamisole was the least effective drug; its efficacy was 4.83% and 3.57% against mature worms and migrating larvae respectively. All of the tested drugs failed to inhibit the encysted larvae in the diaphragms. Moreover, T. spiralis infection in rats reduced significantly the values of total proteins, and albumin while globulin, urea and creatinine values were significantly increased together with AST and ALT activities.

Abdelkawi S.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Biophysical Reviews and Letters | Year: 2012

This work aimed to study the photo disruptive effect of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with two different energy protocols on the rheological properties of the vitreous humor after treatment of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Twenty-one New Zealand albino rabbits were used in this study and divided into three groups. One group was used as control (n = 6 eyes), the second group (n = 18) was treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse (× means times) delivered to the anterior, middle and posterior vitreous respectively (n = 6 eyes for each). The third group (n = 18 eyes) was treated with 10 mJ × 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle and posterior vitreous respectively (n = 6 eyes for each). After two weeks, the protein content, refractive index (RI) and the rheological properties of vitreous humor were determined. The protein content, refractive index, consistency, shear stress and viscosity were increased especially for irradiation of the mid-vitreous, and posterior vitreous. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous induce deleterious effect on the gel state of the vitreous humor. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Zaki A.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology | Farid S.F.,Cairo University
Acta Ophthalmologica | Year: 2010

Purpose: This work aimed to study and evaluate the effect of subconjunctival bevacizumab injection in patients with corneal neovascularization (CNV) resulting from different ocular surface disorders. Methods: Ten eyes with CNV caused by different ocular surface disorders were studied. All eyes had both major and minor vessel CNV caused by factors such as healed corneal ulcers, long-standing chronic inflammatory diseases and corneal ischaemia (caused by contact lenses). All eyes received a single subconjunctival injection of 2.5 mg (0.1 ml) bevacizumab. Morphological changes in the major and minor vessels were evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and corneal photography. Results: Conspicuous recession of the minor vessels of CNV was observed in all eyes at 2 weeks post-injection. The extent of CNV of the major vessels was significantly decreased at 2 weeks post-injection. The level of CNV continued to decrease noticeably for 3 months and then stabilized for the remainder of the 6-month follow-up period. Parameters used for evaluation included the total area of CNV, which amounted to 14.0 ± 5.4% of the corneal surface pre-injection, compared with 9.4 ± 3.9% post-injection (p < 0.01), reflecting a mean decrease in CNV of 33 ± 8%, and the extent of neovascularization, which decreased from 4.3 ± 1.5 clock hours pre-injection to 2.4 ± 1.1 clock hours post-injection (p < 0.01). During the 6-month follow-up, none of the 10 eyes showed any complication that could be related to subconjunctival bevacizumab injection. Conclusions: Bevacizumab can be used safely and effectively for CNV resulting from different ocular surface disorders. It represents an effective treatment for minor vessel neovascularization caused by long-standing chronic inflammation (e.g. trachoma) or long-standing corneal ischaemia (e.g. contact lenses), as well as for major vessel neovascularization resulting from different causes. Bevacizumab was well tolerated over the 6-month follow-up period. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

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