Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology

Al Jizah, Egypt

Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology

Al Jizah, Egypt
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El-Sayed N.M.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Journal of Parasitic Diseases | Year: 2017

This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis (T. canis) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinale extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinale on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinale showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinale on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice with treated eggs by the lower concentrations. In conclusion; Z. officinale extract possessed dose-dependent anti-T. canis activity on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of T. canis eggs. © 2017 Indian Society for Parasitology

Issa R.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Protozoa and helminthes can affect the lung as a primary site, or a complication. Some parasites have a migration cycle through the lung (larva migrans), inducing blood and tissue eosinophilia. Clinical manifestations of lung involvement could be acute: asthma –like syndrome, or Loeffler’s syndrome, with dyspnea, wheezing, cough; or chronic such as hemoptysis or right heart failure signs. Acute manifestations depend on immunological reaction (hypersensitivity), and chronic feature relay on the mechanical action of pathogen on the vessels and tissues. (vg: schistosoma eggs in the pulmonary artery and pulmonary hypertension). The lung is important organs which affected by parasitic diseases in tropical area, e.g. Protozoal parasites that cause pulmonary diseases are Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania donovani, malarial parasites, Toxoplasma gondii, Babesia microti and Babesiadivergens. and also, some helminthes such as Helminths: Cestodes (Pulmonary hydatid cyst; Trematodes (Pulmonary schistosomiasis, Pulmonary paragonimiasis); Nematodes (Pulmonary ascariasis, Pulmonary ancylostomiasis, Pulmonary strongyloidiasis); Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, Pulmonary dirofilariasis; Visceral larva migrans; Pulmonary trichinellosis. The perfect diagnosis for parasitic lung diseases very important to prevent the distribution of parasites between patient in tropical and subtropical area. Health education must be done. The main target of this study is to focus on some tropical parasitic lung diseases. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Aly E.M.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: Diabetes is known to induce oxidative stress along with deranging various metabolisms. One of the most serious complications of diabetes, a disease that has seen a worldwide increase in the prevalence, is diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of acquired blindness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oat on the diabetic-induced oxidative stress and if this can attenuate the development of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Changes on retina structure were performed by using the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: The results demonstrated that diabetic retinopathy was associated with changes on the retina structure which appear after received a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) 60 mg/kg. These changes clearly appeared in the NH-OH, CH and fingerprint regions. The use of oat in case of diabetic was associated with different beneficial effects on the retina constituents, as showed by the changes toward control of the same Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy bands. Conclusion: Oat can be considered as a novel treatment modality for diabetic retinopathy and further studies is required to optimize dosing and formulations that are maximally effective. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All rights reserved.

Taher E.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Türkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Türkiye Parazitoloji Derneǧi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology | Year: 2012

Four plant extracts possessing molluscicidal and insecticidal efficacy were evaluated under laboratory conditions versus Biomphalaria alexandrina, Lymnea cailliaudi snails, their egg masses and Culex pipiens larvae. These extracts included Grape seed, Eucalyptus, Pomegranate, Verbesina alcoholic extracts, as well as Eucalyptus oil. Different mortalities in the exposed vectors were recorded due to the four plant extracts using different concentrations and exposure time. Total snail mortality LC < sub > 100 < /sub > was (100 ppm/12-24h) for Grape seed, (200 ppm/18-24h) for Eucalyptus, (100 ppm/12-18h) for Pomegranate, (100-200 ppm/24h) for Verbesina alcoholic extracts and (100-200 ppm/12h) for Eucalyptus oil. However, only Eucalyptus, Verbesina alcoholic extracts and Eucalyptus oil revealed snail ovicidal effects. LC < sub > 100 < /sub > was (100-200 ppm/24h), (100-200 ppm/24h) & (100-200 ppm/12-48h) respectively. Moreover, the same plant extracts were able to induce total Culex pipiens larvicidal mortality, LC < sub > 100 < /sub > was (200 ppm/48h). However, Grape seed and Pomegranate alcoholic extracts did not induce either snail ovicidal or Culex pipiens larvicidal total mortalities. Activities of the studied plant extracts were considered using reference molluscicidal (Copper sulfate) and insecticidal (Temephos) substances. Egyptian native plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may have a promising role in the production of safe, biodegradable eco-friendly and natural molluscicidal and insecticidal agents.

Abdelkawi S.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
International Journal of Radiation Biology | Year: 2012

Purpose: This study was aimed at determining the effect of whole body irradiation with single and fractionated low doses of γ-radiation on the structure of normal rats lens crystallin with the concept of correlating this with the changes in its molecular weight. Materials and methods: Three groups of Wistar albino rats were involved in this study; the first group is the control (n 10) and the second group (n 10) treated with a single dose of 4.0 Gy administered in one application from Cesium-137. The third group (n 60) was treated for 8 weeks with fractionated dose rate of 0.5 Gy/week. Lens crystallin was analysed for protein content measurements and column chromatography. Results: Measurements of total soluble lens protein indicated pronounced decreases after exposure to single and fractionated doses of γ-radiation. The molecular weights and the protein content for the βH (with high molecular weight), βL (with low molecular weight) and γ-crystallin fractions revealed generalized alteration for all groups. Conclusion: Single and fractionated doses of γ-radiations induced lens crystallin changes that might lead to development of cataract due to induction of cross-linking and aggregation. βH-crystallin was the most stable against radiation induced damage, and the molecular weight of γ-crystallin was the most sensitive to gamma radiation. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Elsaftawy H.S.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Cornea | Year: 2015

PURPOSE:: To assess the clinical outcomes after sequential surgical implantation of intracorneal ring segments and transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (TE-CXL) in keratoconic eyes. METHODS:: In this consecutive randomized study, 40 eyes of 29 patients with progressive mild to moderate keratoconus were included and were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 included 20 eyes that underwent Keraring implantation, and group 2 included 20 eyes that underwent Keraring insertion followed by TE-CXL 1 month later. In both groups, channel creation was performed manually. Visual, refractive, and topographic outcomes were measured preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS:: There was statistically significant improvement in both groups regarding uncorrected distance visual acuity (P < 0.001) and corrected distance visual acuity (P < 0.001), with a significant reduction in the refractive error and keratometric values (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding changes in uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and refractive error (P > 0.05). However, group 2 revealed a more statistically significant reduction in spherical refraction after 3 months (P = 0.04) and highly significant improvement after 6 months (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS:: Intracorneal ring segment implantation is an effective procedure for visual and refractive improvement in keratoconic eyes. The addition of TE-CXL to the procedure compensates for residual superficial irregularities, disrupts the progression of the disease, and provides greater improvements in spherical values. The process is simply a deep stretch with superficial lamellar stiffness. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mahmoud S.S.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2010

In developed countries, medical awareness about the disease and how to deal with it is less acknowledged. With diabetes mellitus the situation becomes more serious due to the fact that it affects nearly all parts of the body and may lead to loss of vision. In this study, the variation of blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients was considered, and its effect(s) on their blood erythrocyte membranes was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were classified into two groups with mean fasting blood glucose level of 185 mg/dl (D-185 group) and 285 mg/dl (D-285 group). For comparison, healthy individuals were involved where their mean fasting blood glucose level is 86 mg/dl. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found to induce change in the lipid and protein components and causing some important structural changes in the protein secondary structure with change in the β-sheet and β-turn structures at D-285 mg/dl group. Erythrocyte membrane disorder was increased associated with restriction in the vibrational motion around the phospholipids interface region. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ibrahim M.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Gawad A.E.-D.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2012

As a result of emerging applications of chitosan this paper is dedicated to study the possible interaction of amino acids with chitosan. Semiemperical molecular modeling technique is applied to assess the interaction of amino acids (alanine, asparagines, aspartic, arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine and tryptophan) with chitosan. Results indicate the selectivity of chitosan furthermore we introduce the site whereas amino acid could interact with chitosan. Chitosan is interacting with amino acid through NH2 group. It is concluded that chitosan is acting with amino acids like protein interaction which dedicate chitosan for many applications in the biological system. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.

Soliman G.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology
Türkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Türkiye Parazitoloji Derneǧi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology | Year: 2011

Three commonly used antihelmenthic drugs including Dormectin (0.2 mg/kg), Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) and Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg) were examined for their antihelmenthic efficacy against experimental Trichinella spiralis infection in rats. One hundred and twenty rats were orally infected with 500 T. spiralis larvae. Drugs were tested against adult worms at 4th day, against migrating larvae at 10th days and against encysted larvae at 35th day post infection (dpi). Rats were sacrificed five days post treatment. Mature worms and migrating larvae counts were detected. Significant effect was detected in rats treated with Dormectin and Ivermectin compared to non-treated controls. Dormectin showed an efficacy of 97.75% and 86.23% in eliminating both mature worms and migrating larvae respectively. Ivermectin showed an efficacy of 94.99% and 83.85% respectively. However, Levamisole was the least effective drug; its efficacy was 4.83% and 3.57% against mature worms and migrating larvae respectively. All of the tested drugs failed to inhibit the encysted larvae in the diaphragms. Moreover, T. spiralis infection in rats reduced significantly the values of total proteins, and albumin while globulin, urea and creatinine values were significantly increased together with AST and ALT activities.

Zaki A.A.,Egyptian Research Institute of Ophthalmology | Farid S.F.,Cairo University
Acta Ophthalmologica | Year: 2010

Purpose: This work aimed to study and evaluate the effect of subconjunctival bevacizumab injection in patients with corneal neovascularization (CNV) resulting from different ocular surface disorders. Methods: Ten eyes with CNV caused by different ocular surface disorders were studied. All eyes had both major and minor vessel CNV caused by factors such as healed corneal ulcers, long-standing chronic inflammatory diseases and corneal ischaemia (caused by contact lenses). All eyes received a single subconjunctival injection of 2.5 mg (0.1 ml) bevacizumab. Morphological changes in the major and minor vessels were evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and corneal photography. Results: Conspicuous recession of the minor vessels of CNV was observed in all eyes at 2 weeks post-injection. The extent of CNV of the major vessels was significantly decreased at 2 weeks post-injection. The level of CNV continued to decrease noticeably for 3 months and then stabilized for the remainder of the 6-month follow-up period. Parameters used for evaluation included the total area of CNV, which amounted to 14.0 ± 5.4% of the corneal surface pre-injection, compared with 9.4 ± 3.9% post-injection (p < 0.01), reflecting a mean decrease in CNV of 33 ± 8%, and the extent of neovascularization, which decreased from 4.3 ± 1.5 clock hours pre-injection to 2.4 ± 1.1 clock hours post-injection (p < 0.01). During the 6-month follow-up, none of the 10 eyes showed any complication that could be related to subconjunctival bevacizumab injection. Conclusions: Bevacizumab can be used safely and effectively for CNV resulting from different ocular surface disorders. It represents an effective treatment for minor vessel neovascularization caused by long-standing chronic inflammation (e.g. trachoma) or long-standing corneal ischaemia (e.g. contact lenses), as well as for major vessel neovascularization resulting from different causes. Bevacizumab was well tolerated over the 6-month follow-up period. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

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