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Abd-Rabou S.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute | Simmons A.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Entomological News

Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are some of the most problematic global pests of agricultural crops. Yet, natural enemies help control whiteflies. A field survey was conducted to identify and record the natural enemies associated with whiteflies in Egypt. Fifty-two natural enemies (29 species of parasitoids, 8 species of pathogens, and 15 species of predators) were found attacking or isolated from 14 whitefly species in Egypt. New world records are reported herein for two parasitoids [Encarsia lutea Masi and Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet)] on eight species of whiteflies, and for three predators [Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), and Coccinella septempunctata L.] on a single whitefly species [Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday)]. In addition, new local records of natural enemies on whiteflies are reported; this is the first local report of six predators and three entomopathogenic fungi of whiteflies in Egypt. This work helps in defining the natural enemies of whiteflies in and near agricultural communities. Source

El-Gendy I.R.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
International Journal of Agricultural Research

The Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important agricultural pest in Egypt. Monitoring and control of this species is relating to collecting data of traps catching. The efficiency of traps attraction has an important role to reach the real population density of PFF. Present study was carried out in the field on Jackson trap provided with the sex attractant, Methyl eugenol, to evaluate the effects of color and height of the trap as well as position of the trap in the main cardinal directions of the tree on attraction of male PFF, expressed as male flies captured per trap per day (CTD). Results of the comparison between yellow and white colors of card Jackson traps revealed that white trap color (4.67 CTD) was preferred than the yellow one (3.63 CTD) for peach fruit fly attraction. The suitable height for hanging traps on the tree was 1.5 m, followed by 1.0, 2.5 and 2.0 m heights, respectively. On the other hand, the best position of trap on the tree was West direction (3.33 CTD) of the tree, followed by North (3.20 CTD), East (1.90 CTD) and South directions (1.60 CTD), respectively. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc. Source

El-Sayed A.A.A.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Journal of Entomology

The effect of LC20 of hexaflumuron on some biological aspects, egg maturation and ovary of the spiny bollworm,Earias insulana (Boisd.) were studied under controlled conditions of 26±1°C and 75±5 RH. The calculated LC20 and LC50 values of hexaflumuron were 17.42 and 72.75 ppm. The treatment newly hatched larvae with LC20(17.42 ppm) elongated larval and pupal duration compared with control. Treatment significantly reduced mean numbers of deposited eggs and hatchability percentage compared with control. Hexaflumuron reduced number of immature eggs after emergence (20.56 eggs/ovariol) compared with 27.05 eggs/ovariol for untreated. No mature eggs were present in the female moths ovarioles after emergence of treated and untreated. Mature eggs were found after 36 h and 3 days in untreated and treated, respectively. The highest numbers of mature eggs 3.63 and 6.32 eggs/ovariol were recorded after four days from emergence in treated and untreated, respectively. Hexaflumuron reduced the ovarian weight and length, size of basal eggs and number of spermatophore/female compared with untreated. The LC20 of hexaflumuron reduced significantly larval content of total carbohydrate, lipid and soluble protein. © 2016 A.A.A. El-Sayed. Source

Simmons A.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Shaaban A.-R.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Pest Management Science

BACKGROUND: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). RESULTS:Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. Source

El-Zahi E.-Z.S.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control

Profenofos and six novel pesticides viz., pyridalyl, spinosad, indoxacarb, emamectin-benzoate, thiamethoxam and abamectin were evaluated against green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) through laboratory bioassay. C. carnea eggs were immersed in pesticides solutions, while second instar larvae were exposed using leaf dipping and thin film techniques. Recommended dose of each pesticide was estimated. Latent effects on consequent stages, percent pupation and adult emergence, were studied as well. Spinosad and indoxacarb were non-toxic causing 0.0% mortality to 24 h old eggs. Pyridalyl, abamectin and emamectin-benzoate were harmless resulting in less than 10% egg mortality, while profenofos was highly toxic causing 86.97% mortality. 48 h old eggs were more susceptible to all tested toxicants than 24 h old eggs. Based on the classification given by IOBC/WPRS, all tested novel pesticides were harmless to C. carnea larvae and pyridalyl and abamectin were the most harmless causing less than 10% mortality, whereas profenofos was harmful recording 100% larval mortality. With exception of pyridalyl, the tested pesticides were more toxic to C. carnea larvae using thin film technique comparing to leaf dipping technique. The six novel pesticides exhibited latent effects to treated larvae on subsequent stages causing 44.45 - 80.00% pupation and 37.50 - 75.00% adult emergence. Further field studies should be conducted to confirm the harmlessness of novel pesticides on beneficial arthropods, particularly under field conditions. Source

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