Simmons A.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Shaaban A.-R.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011
BACKGROUND: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). RESULTS:Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..
Abd-Rabou S.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute |
Simmons A.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Entomological News | Year: 2014
Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are some of the most problematic global pests of agricultural crops. Yet, natural enemies help control whiteflies. A field survey was conducted to identify and record the natural enemies associated with whiteflies in Egypt. Fifty-two natural enemies (29 species of parasitoids, 8 species of pathogens, and 15 species of predators) were found attacking or isolated from 14 whitefly species in Egypt. New world records are reported herein for two parasitoids [Encarsia lutea Masi and Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet)] on eight species of whiteflies, and for three predators [Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), and Coccinella septempunctata L.] on a single whitefly species [Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday)]. In addition, new local records of natural enemies on whiteflies are reported; this is the first local report of six predators and three entomopathogenic fungi of whiteflies in Egypt. This work helps in defining the natural enemies of whiteflies in and near agricultural communities.
El-Gendy I.R.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012
The Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important agricultural pest in Egypt. Monitoring and control of this species is relating to collecting data of traps catching. The efficiency of traps attraction has an important role to reach the real population density of PFF. Present study was carried out in the field on Jackson trap provided with the sex attractant, Methyl eugenol, to evaluate the effects of color and height of the trap as well as position of the trap in the main cardinal directions of the tree on attraction of male PFF, expressed as male flies captured per trap per day (CTD). Results of the comparison between yellow and white colors of card Jackson traps revealed that white trap color (4.67 CTD) was preferred than the yellow one (3.63 CTD) for peach fruit fly attraction. The suitable height for hanging traps on the tree was 1.5 m, followed by 1.0, 2.5 and 2.0 m heights, respectively. On the other hand, the best position of trap on the tree was West direction (3.33 CTD) of the tree, followed by North (3.20 CTD), East (1.90 CTD) and South directions (1.60 CTD), respectively. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.
Hassan E.M.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2015
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexatrol antibiotic and peppermint oil with different concentrations as a disinfectants on infected silkworm Bombyx mori larvae with bacteria by studying their effects on some biochemical characters of larvae as the protein enzymes activity; aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), Total Soluble Protein (TSP) and free radical biomarkers; lipid peroxidation (MDA) and Protein Carbonyl Content (PCC). It found that, most concentrations enhanced the enzymes activity and decreased the effects of free radical on lipid and protein of larval haemolymph compared with the control group, especially dexatrol concentration (0.4%) and peppermint oil concentrations (0.5 and 0.25%) revealed the best results significantly. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.
Khedr M.A.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2016
In the research for alternative tools and botanical products to control Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sesamum indicum (L.) (Lamiales: Pedaliaceae) oil was assayed as an ovicide. The mortality increased with existence of fatty acids. Chemical analysis of S. indicum oil using GLC analysis showed palmitic acid as the major fatty acid (51.27%), while the major hydrocarbon and sterols were found to be heneicosane (58.63%) and β-sitosterol (2.60%), respectively. Generally, the values of LC50s indicated that one-day-old egg masses are more susceptible than three-day-old eggs. Also, the leaf dip technique is more efficient than the spraying one. Results showed several features of chorionic surface deformation treated with sesame and KZ oils than control using scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the tested oils caused significant reduction in both total soluble protein and transaminase enzymes as compared to control. Additionally, the oils elongated the incubation period and larval duration than control. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
El-Sayed A.A.A.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2016
The effect of LC20 of hexaflumuron on some biological aspects, egg maturation and ovary of the spiny bollworm,Earias insulana (Boisd.) were studied under controlled conditions of 26±1°C and 75±5 RH. The calculated LC20 and LC50 values of hexaflumuron were 17.42 and 72.75 ppm. The treatment newly hatched larvae with LC20(17.42 ppm) elongated larval and pupal duration compared with control. Treatment significantly reduced mean numbers of deposited eggs and hatchability percentage compared with control. Hexaflumuron reduced number of immature eggs after emergence (20.56 eggs/ovariol) compared with 27.05 eggs/ovariol for untreated. No mature eggs were present in the female moths ovarioles after emergence of treated and untreated. Mature eggs were found after 36 h and 3 days in untreated and treated, respectively. The highest numbers of mature eggs 3.63 and 6.32 eggs/ovariol were recorded after four days from emergence in treated and untreated, respectively. Hexaflumuron reduced the ovarian weight and length, size of basal eggs and number of spermatophore/female compared with untreated. The LC20 of hexaflumuron reduced significantly larval content of total carbohydrate, lipid and soluble protein. © 2016 A.A.A. El-Sayed.
El-Zahi E.-Z.S.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control | Year: 2012
Profenofos and six novel pesticides viz., pyridalyl, spinosad, indoxacarb, emamectin-benzoate, thiamethoxam and abamectin were evaluated against green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) through laboratory bioassay. C. carnea eggs were immersed in pesticides solutions, while second instar larvae were exposed using leaf dipping and thin film techniques. Recommended dose of each pesticide was estimated. Latent effects on consequent stages, percent pupation and adult emergence, were studied as well. Spinosad and indoxacarb were non-toxic causing 0.0% mortality to 24 h old eggs. Pyridalyl, abamectin and emamectin-benzoate were harmless resulting in less than 10% egg mortality, while profenofos was highly toxic causing 86.97% mortality. 48 h old eggs were more susceptible to all tested toxicants than 24 h old eggs. Based on the classification given by IOBC/WPRS, all tested novel pesticides were harmless to C. carnea larvae and pyridalyl and abamectin were the most harmless causing less than 10% mortality, whereas profenofos was harmful recording 100% larval mortality. With exception of pyridalyl, the tested pesticides were more toxic to C. carnea larvae using thin film technique comparing to leaf dipping technique. The six novel pesticides exhibited latent effects to treated larvae on subsequent stages causing 44.45 - 80.00% pupation and 37.50 - 75.00% adult emergence. Further field studies should be conducted to confirm the harmlessness of novel pesticides on beneficial arthropods, particularly under field conditions.
El-Gendy I.R.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012
Mediterranean Fruit Fly (MFF), Ceratitis capitata and Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata are the main insect pests in Egypt and because the monitoring process is done by sex attractant traps that is specialize for males only, while food baits extend to attract both male and female flies and thus, it can be used in monitoring fruit flies, especially female flies. Responding both MFF and PFF to food baits in field trials were studied as aim to evaluate the attraction to some protein derivatives; Cera Trap, Buminal and Bio Nal, in comparison with torula yeast, also effect of pH degree. Results indicated that the highest attractive material for MFF was Buminal bait, followed by Cera Trap and Bio Nal. While, the highest attractive material for PFF was Cera Trap bait, followed by Buminal and Bio Nal. Significant differences in attraction were obtained among different food baits, also between females and males attraction for both MFF and PFF. Number of captured flies for both species was related to pH degree. A significant negative correlation was obtained between concentrations of different food baits in pH degree. A significant negative correlation was obtained for Buminal baits in pH degree with elapsed time while non-significant negative and non-significant positive correlation were obtained for Cera Trap and Bio Nal baits in pH degree with elapsed time. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.
Sabry K.H.,National Research Center of Egypt |
El-Sayed A.A.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2011
Chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, spinosad and buprofezin were tested against the second instar larvae and adults (except buprofezin) of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. The results showed that chlorpyrifos was more toxic to second instar larvae than lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, spinosad and buprofezin with LC50 values of 1.78, 8.81, 26.9, 294.36 and 997.05 ppm respectively. However, lambda-cyhalothrin was highly toxic to the adult of C. carnea compared to the other pesticides. The LC50 of lambda-cyhalothrin was 0.04 ppm. Buprofezin and Spinosad were the least toxic to second instar larvae and adults of C. carnea respectively. According to the percents of mortality, these pesticide toxicity was classified into harmful pesticide (chlorpyrifos), moderately harmful (lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin), slightly harmful pesticide (spinosad) and harmless pesticides (buprofezin). While, with the adults treated, these pesticides classified into two groups such as moderately harmful (lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and less harmful (spinosad) pesticides. These results confirmed that the adult of C. carnea was more susceptible to the previous pesticides than second instar larvae. Buprofezin and spinosad are more suitable pesticides for integrated pest management programs and can be used upon the peak of C. carnea population density. © JBiopest. 269.
El-Naggar J.B.,Egyptian Plant Protection Res Institute |
Zidan N.E.-H.A.,Kafr El Sheikh University
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2013
This work was carried out at Sakha Agriculture Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during the 2010 and 2011 cotton growing seasons to evaluate the effectiveness of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, used separately as seed treatments and foliar applications at the recommended rate against the sucking insects: thrips, thrips tabaci (lind), jassid, Empoasca spp., whitefly, Bemicia tabaci, and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover.). The side effects of both insecticides on soil fauna was investigated as well. The experimental results showed the following trends: Seed treatment with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam protected cotton seedlings from thrips for at least 6 weeks from the onset of seed planting. Also, both insecticides induced a fast initial effect (after one week of treatment) on whitefly (immature stages). This fast initial effect then gradually decreased to reach a moderate effect according to the general mean of percent reduction. The two tested insecticides exhibited a moderate initial reduction in the population of whitefly (mature stages) and jassids during the two seasons and then this gradually decreased. Imidacloprid had a better efficiency against this sap sucking pest than thiamethoxam. Treatments with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam as foliar applications were highly effective against aphids, up to 14 days in the case of jassids, while the effect was moderate on the whitefly population (mature and immature stages). Imidacloprid had more initial and residual effect than thiamethoxam against jassids. For all soil arthropod groups implicated in this investigation, the used pesticide and depth, significantly affected their mean numbers. The least number of soil arthropods was sampled from the 10-20 cm layer treated with pesticides compared with the 0-10 cm layer. The control plot at both depths recorded the highest number of soil arthropods sampled. Collembola was most abundant while Psocoptera, Oribatida, Actinedida, and Gamasida were least abundant. Pesticide application increased the overall Collembola density compared to the control plots, while it decreased overall Psocoptera, Oribatida, Actinedida, and Gamasida density compared to the control plots. In case of the foliar treatment, there was a reduction in the mean number of examined micro-arthropods either under plants or between plants, in both depths. The reduction in the number of soil arthropods was significantly more in the 0-10 layer. The reduction was more significant between plants than under plants. The most influenced micro-arthropod was Oribatida. The results also revealed that imidacloprid had more adverse effects on soil fauna than thiamethoxam.