Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD

Cairo, Egypt

Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD

Cairo, Egypt
Time filter
Source Type

Braun D.A.,Harvard University | Schueler M.,Harvard University | Halbritter J.,Harvard University | Halbritter J.,University of Leipzig | And 22 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2016

Chronically increased echogenicity on renal ultrasound is a sensitive early finding of chronic kidney disease that can be detected before manifestation of other symptoms. Increased echogenicity, however, is not specific for a certain etiology of chronic kidney disease. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing in 79 consanguineous or familial cases of suspected nephronophthisis in order to determine the underlying molecular disease cause. In 50 cases, there was a causative mutation in a known monogenic disease gene. In 32 of these cases whole exome sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy. In 8 cases it revealed the diagnosis of a renal tubulopathy. The remaining 10 cases were identified as Alport syndrome (4), autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (2), congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (3), and APECED syndrome (1). In 5 families, in whom mutations in known monogenic genes were excluded, we applied homozygosity mapping for variant filtering and identified 5 novel candidate genes (RBM48, FAM186B, PIAS1, INCENP, and RCOR1) for renal ciliopathies. Thus, whole exome sequencing allows the detection of the causative mutation in 2/3 of affected individuals, thereby presenting the etiologic diagnosis, and allows identification of novel candidate genes. © 2015 International Society of Nephrology.

Hwang D.-Y.,Harvard University | Hwang D.-Y.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Kohl S.,Harvard University | Fan X.,Boston University | And 30 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 40–50 % of chronic kidney disease that manifests in the first two decades of life. Thus far, 31 monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT have been described, explaining ~12 % of cases. To identify additional CAKUT-causing genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing followed by a genetic burden analysis in 26 genetically unsolved families with CAKUT. We identified two heterozygous mutations in SRGAP1 in 2 unrelated families. SRGAP1 is a small GTPase-activating protein in the SLIT2–ROBO2 signaling pathway, which is essential for development of the metanephric kidney. We then examined the pathway-derived candidate gene SLIT2 for mutations in cohort of 749 individuals with CAKUT and we identified 3 unrelated individuals with heterozygous mutations. The clinical phenotypes of individuals with mutations in SLIT2 or SRGAP1 were cystic dysplastic kidneys, unilateral renal agenesis, and duplicated collecting system. We show that SRGAP1 is expressed in early mouse nephrogenic mesenchyme and that it is coexpressed with ROBO2 in SIX2-positive nephron progenitor cells of the cap mesenchyme in developing rat kidney. We demonstrate that the newly identified mutations in SRGAP1 lead to an augmented inhibition of RAC1 in cultured human embryonic kidney cells and that the SLIT2 mutations compromise the ability of the SLIT2 ligand to inhibit cell migration. Thus, we report on two novel candidate genes for causing monogenic isolated CAKUT in humans. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Hwang D.-Y.,Harvard University | Hwang D.-Y.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Dworschak G.C.,Harvard University | Dworschak G.C.,University of Bonn | And 12 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2014

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease. CAKUT can be caused by monogenic mutations; however, data are lacking on their frequency. Genetic diagnosis has been hampered by genetic heterogeneity and lack of genotype-phenotype correlation. To determine the percentage of cases with CAKUT that can be explained by mutations in known CAKUT genes, we analyzed the coding exons of the 17 known dominant CAKUT-causing genes in a cohort of 749 individuals from 650 families with CAKUT. The most common phenotypes in this CAKUT cohort were vesicoureteral reflux in 288 patients, renal hypodysplasia in 120 patients, and unilateral renal agenesis in 90 patients. We identified 37 different heterozygous mutations (33 novel) in 12 of the 17 known genes in 47 patients from 41 of the 650 families (6.3%). These mutations include (number of families): BMP7 (1), CDC5L (1), CHD1L (5), EYA1 (3), GATA3 (2), HNF1B (6), PAX2 (5), RET (3), ROBO2 (4), SALL1 (9), SIX2 (1), and SIX5 (1). Furthermore, several mutations previously reported to be disease-causing are most likely benign variants. Thus, in a large cohort over 6% of families with isolated CAKUT are caused by a mutation in 12 of 17 dominant CAKUT genes. Our report represents one of the most in-depth diagnostic studies of monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT in children. © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.

Otto E.A.,University of Michigan | Ramaswami G.,University of Michigan | Janssen S.,University of Michigan | Chaki M.,University of Michigan | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Nephronophthisis associated ciliopathies (NPHP-AC) comprise a group of autosomal recessive cystic kidney diseases that includes nephronophthisis (NPHP), Senior-Loken syndrome (SLS), Joubert syndrome (JBTS), and Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS). To date, causative mutations in NPHP-AC have been described for 18 different genes, rendering mutation analysis tedious and expensive. To overcome the broad genetic locus heterogeneity, a strategy of DNA pooling with consecutive massively parallel resequencing (MPR) was devised. Methods: In 120 patients with severe NPHP-AC phenotypes, five pools of genomic DNA with 24 patients each were prepared which were used as templates in order to PCR amplify all 376 exons of 18 NPHP-AC genes (NPHP1, INVS, NPHP3, NPHP4, IQCB1, CEP290, GLIS2, RPGRIP1L, NEK8, TMEM67, INPP5E, TMEM216, AHI1, ARL13B, CC2D2A, TTC21B, MKS1, and XPNPEP3). PCR products were then subjected to MPR on an Illumina Genome-Analyser and mutations were subsequently assigned to their respective mutation carrier via CEL I endonuclease based heteroduplex screening and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: For proof of principle, DNA from patients with known mutations was used and detection of 22 out of 24 different alleles (92% sensitivity) was demonstrated. MPR led to the molecular diagnosis in 30/120 patients (25%) and 54 pathogenic mutations (27 novel) were identified in seven different NPHP-AC genes. Additionally, in 24 patients only single heterozygous variants of unknown significance were found. Conclusions: The combined approach of DNA pooling followed by MPR strongly facilitates mutation analysis in broadly heterogeneous single gene disorders. The lack of mutations in 75% of patients in this cohort indicates further extensive heterogeneity in NPHP-AC.

Gee H.Y.,Harvard University | Saisawat P.,University of Michigan | Ashraf S.,Harvard University | Hurd T.W.,University of Edinburgh | And 30 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is divided into steroid-sensitive (SSNS) and -resistant (SRNS) variants. SRNS causes end-stage kidney disease, which cannot be cured. While the disease mechanisms of NS are not well understood, genetic mapping studies suggest a multitude of unknown single-gene causes. We combined homozygosity mapping with whole-exome resequencing and identified an ARHGDIA mutation that causes SRNS. We demonstrated that ARHGDIA is in a complex with RHO GTPases and is prominently expressed in podocytes of rat glomeruli. ARHGDIA mutations (R120X and G173V) from individuals with SRNS abrogated interaction with RHO GTPases and increased active GTP-bound RAC1 and CDC42, but not RHOA, indicating that RAC1 and CDC42 are more relevant to the pathogenesis of this SRNS variant than RHOA. Moreover, the mutations enhanced migration of cultured human podocytes; however, enhanced migration was reversed by treatment with RAC1 inhibitors. The nephrotic phenotype was recapitulated in arhgdia-deficient zebrafish. RAC1 inhibitors were partially effective in ameliorating arhgdia-associated defects. These findings identify a single-gene cause of NS and reveal that RHO GTPase signaling is a pathogenic mediator of SRNS.

Ovunc B.,University of Michigan | Ovunc B.,Hacettepe University | Ashraf S.,University of Michigan | Vega-Warner V.,University of Michigan | And 6 more authors.
Nephron - Clinical Practice | Year: 2012

Background: Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is defined as nephrotic syndrome that manifests within the first 3 months of life. Mutations in the NPHS1 gene encoding nephrin, are a major cause for CNS. Currently, more than 173 different mutations of NPHS1 have been published as causing CNS, affecting most exons. Methods: We performed mutation analysis of NPHS1 in a worldwide cohort of 20 families (23 children) with CNS. All 29 exons of the NPHS1 gene were examined using direct sequencing. New mutations were confirmed by demonstrating their absence in 96 healthy control individuals. Results: We detected disease-causing mutations in 9 of 20 families (45%). Seven of the families showed a homozygous mutation, while two were compound heterozygous. In another 2 families, single heterozygous NPHS1 mutations were detected. Out of 10 different mutations discovered, 3 were novel, consisting of 1 splice site mutation and 2 missense mutations. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that the spectrum of NPHS1 mutations is still expanding, involving new exons, in patients from a diverse ethnic background. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Halbritter J.,University of Michigan | Diaz K.,University of Michigan | Chaki M.,University of Michigan | Porath J.D.,University of Michigan | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify disease-causing mutations within coding regions of 11 known NPHP genes (NPHP1-NPHP11) in a cohort of 192 patients diagnosed with a nephronophthisis-associated ciliopathy, at low cost. Methods: Mutation analysis was carried out using PCR-based 48.48 Access Array microfluidic technology (Fluidigm) with consecutive next-generation sequencing. We applied a 10-fold primer multiplexing approach allowing PCR-based amplification of 475 amplicons (251 exons) for 48 DNA samples simultaneously. After four rounds of amplification followed by indexing all of 192 patient-derived products with different barcodes in a subsequent PCR, 2×100 paired-end sequencing was performed on one lane of a HiSeq2000 instrument (Illumina). Bioinformatics analysis was performed using 'CLC Genomics Workbench' software. Potential mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and shown to segregate. Results: Bioinformatics analysis revealed sufficient coverage of 30×for 168/192 (87.5%) DNA samples (median 449×) and of 234 out of 251 targeted coding exons (sensitivity: 93.2%). For proof-of-principle, we analysed 20 known mutations and identified 18 of them in the correct zygosity state (90%). Likewise, we identified pathogenic mutations in 34/192 patients (18%) and discovered 23 novel mutations in the genes NPHP3 (7), NPHP4 (3), IQCB1 (4), CEP290 (7), RPGRIP1L (1), and TMEM67 (1). Additionally, we found 40 different single heterozygous missense variants of unknown significance. Conclusions: We conclude that the combined approach of array-based multiplexed PCR-amplification on a Fluidigm Access Array platform followed by next-generation sequencing is highly cost-efficient and strongly facilitates diagnostic mutation analysis in broadly heterogeneous Mendelian disorders.

Halbritter J.,University of Michigan | Porath J.D.,University of Michigan | Diaz K.A.,University of Michigan | Braun D.A.,University of Michigan | And 8 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are autosomal-recessive cystic kidney diseases. More than 13 genes are implicated in its pathogenesis to date, accounting for only 40 % of all cases. High-throughput mutation screenings of large patient cohorts represent a powerful tool for diagnostics and identification of novel NPHP genes. We here performed a new high-throughput mutation analysis method to study 13 established NPHP genes (NPHP1-NPHP13) in a worldwide cohort of 1,056 patients diagnosed with NPHP-RC. We first applied multiplexed PCR-based amplification using Fluidigm Access-Array™ technology followed by barcoding and next-generation resequencing on an Illumina platform. As a result, we established the molecular diagnosis in 127/1,056 independent individuals (12.0 %) and identified a single heterozygous truncating mutation in an additional 31 individuals (2.9 %). Altogether, we detected 159 different mutations in 11 out of 13 different NPHP genes, 99 of which were novel. Phenotypically most remarkable were two patients with truncating mutations in INVS/NPHP2 who did not present as infants and did not exhibit extrarenal manifestations. In addition, we present the first case of Caroli disease due to mutations in WDR19/NPHP13 and the second case ever with a recessive mutation in GLIS2/NPHP7. This study represents the most comprehensive mutation analysis in NPHP-RC patients, identifying the largest number of novel mutations in a single study worldwide. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Soliman N.A.,Cairo University | Soliman N.A.,Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD | Nabhan M.M.,Cairo University | Nabhan M.M.,Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD | And 5 more authors.
Renal Failure | Year: 2014

Background: Renal cystic disorders (RCD) constitute an important and leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. It can be acquired or inherited; isolated or associated with extrarenal manifestations. The precise diagnosis represents a difficult clinical challenge. Methods: The aim of this study was to define the pattern of clinical phenotypes of children with renal cystic diseases in Pediatric Nephrology Center, Cairo University. We have studied the clinical phenotypes of 105 children with RCD [45 (43%) of them had extrarenal manifestations]. Results: The most common disorders were the presumably inherited renal cystic diseases (65.7%) mainly nephronophthisis and related ciliopathies (36.2%), as well as polycystic kidney diseases (29.5%). Moreover, multicystic dysplastic kidneys accounted for 18% of study cases. Interestingly, eight syndromic cases are described, yet unclassified as none had been previously reported in the literature. Conclusion: RCD in this study had an expanded and complex spectrum and were largely due to presumably inherited/genetic disorders (65.7%). Moreover, we propose a modified algorithm for clinical and diagnostic approach to patients with RCD. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Saleem S.N.,Cairo University | Zaki M.S.,National Research Center of Egypt | Soliman N.A.,Cairo University | Soliman N.A.,Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD | Momtaz M.,Cairo University
Neuropediatrics | Year: 2011

We report on the prenatal MRI diagnosis of Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders (JSRD) in 2 unrelated fetuses at 1718 weeks of gestation who were referred to us with history of siblings with JSRD and additional renal affection in the second case. Ultrasonography (US) showed non-specific cranial findings in both fetuses such as prominent cisterna magna and ventricular system as well as bilateral renal enlargement in the first case. MRI identified the molar tooth sign (MTS) and suggested a JSRD affection in both fetuses. The final suggested diagnosis for both cases was Joubert syndrome with intrafamilial variability in renal expression. This report describes the earliest prenatal detection of MTS. We include a discussion of the differential diagnosis of renal affection in conjunction with MTS and review the previously reported cases with prenatal MRI detection of MTS. The report emphasizes the role of MRI in the early specific prenatal diagnosis of JSRD through the recognition of MTS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

Loading Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD collaborators
Loading Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD collaborators