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Saleem S.N.,Cairo University | Zaki M.S.,National Research Center of Egypt | Soliman N.A.,Cairo University | Soliman N.A.,Egyptian Group for Orphan Renal Diseases EGORD | Momtaz M.,Cairo University

We report on the prenatal MRI diagnosis of Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders (JSRD) in 2 unrelated fetuses at 1718 weeks of gestation who were referred to us with history of siblings with JSRD and additional renal affection in the second case. Ultrasonography (US) showed non-specific cranial findings in both fetuses such as prominent cisterna magna and ventricular system as well as bilateral renal enlargement in the first case. MRI identified the molar tooth sign (MTS) and suggested a JSRD affection in both fetuses. The final suggested diagnosis for both cases was Joubert syndrome with intrafamilial variability in renal expression. This report describes the earliest prenatal detection of MTS. We include a discussion of the differential diagnosis of renal affection in conjunction with MTS and review the previously reported cases with prenatal MRI detection of MTS. The report emphasizes the role of MRI in the early specific prenatal diagnosis of JSRD through the recognition of MTS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

Halbritter J.,University of Michigan | Diaz K.,University of Michigan | Chaki M.,University of Michigan | Porath J.D.,University of Michigan | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics

Objective: To identify disease-causing mutations within coding regions of 11 known NPHP genes (NPHP1-NPHP11) in a cohort of 192 patients diagnosed with a nephronophthisis-associated ciliopathy, at low cost. Methods: Mutation analysis was carried out using PCR-based 48.48 Access Array microfluidic technology (Fluidigm) with consecutive next-generation sequencing. We applied a 10-fold primer multiplexing approach allowing PCR-based amplification of 475 amplicons (251 exons) for 48 DNA samples simultaneously. After four rounds of amplification followed by indexing all of 192 patient-derived products with different barcodes in a subsequent PCR, 2×100 paired-end sequencing was performed on one lane of a HiSeq2000 instrument (Illumina). Bioinformatics analysis was performed using 'CLC Genomics Workbench' software. Potential mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and shown to segregate. Results: Bioinformatics analysis revealed sufficient coverage of 30×for 168/192 (87.5%) DNA samples (median 449×) and of 234 out of 251 targeted coding exons (sensitivity: 93.2%). For proof-of-principle, we analysed 20 known mutations and identified 18 of them in the correct zygosity state (90%). Likewise, we identified pathogenic mutations in 34/192 patients (18%) and discovered 23 novel mutations in the genes NPHP3 (7), NPHP4 (3), IQCB1 (4), CEP290 (7), RPGRIP1L (1), and TMEM67 (1). Additionally, we found 40 different single heterozygous missense variants of unknown significance. Conclusions: We conclude that the combined approach of array-based multiplexed PCR-amplification on a Fluidigm Access Array platform followed by next-generation sequencing is highly cost-efficient and strongly facilitates diagnostic mutation analysis in broadly heterogeneous Mendelian disorders. Source

Gee H.Y.,Harvard University | Saisawat P.,University of Michigan | Ashraf S.,Harvard University | Hurd T.W.,University of Edinburgh | And 30 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is divided into steroid-sensitive (SSNS) and -resistant (SRNS) variants. SRNS causes end-stage kidney disease, which cannot be cured. While the disease mechanisms of NS are not well understood, genetic mapping studies suggest a multitude of unknown single-gene causes. We combined homozygosity mapping with whole-exome resequencing and identified an ARHGDIA mutation that causes SRNS. We demonstrated that ARHGDIA is in a complex with RHO GTPases and is prominently expressed in podocytes of rat glomeruli. ARHGDIA mutations (R120X and G173V) from individuals with SRNS abrogated interaction with RHO GTPases and increased active GTP-bound RAC1 and CDC42, but not RHOA, indicating that RAC1 and CDC42 are more relevant to the pathogenesis of this SRNS variant than RHOA. Moreover, the mutations enhanced migration of cultured human podocytes; however, enhanced migration was reversed by treatment with RAC1 inhibitors. The nephrotic phenotype was recapitulated in arhgdia-deficient zebrafish. RAC1 inhibitors were partially effective in ameliorating arhgdia-associated defects. These findings identify a single-gene cause of NS and reveal that RHO GTPase signaling is a pathogenic mediator of SRNS. Source

Halbritter J.,University of Michigan | Porath J.D.,University of Michigan | Diaz K.A.,University of Michigan | Braun D.A.,University of Michigan | And 8 more authors.
Human Genetics

Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are autosomal-recessive cystic kidney diseases. More than 13 genes are implicated in its pathogenesis to date, accounting for only 40 % of all cases. High-throughput mutation screenings of large patient cohorts represent a powerful tool for diagnostics and identification of novel NPHP genes. We here performed a new high-throughput mutation analysis method to study 13 established NPHP genes (NPHP1-NPHP13) in a worldwide cohort of 1,056 patients diagnosed with NPHP-RC. We first applied multiplexed PCR-based amplification using Fluidigm Access-Array™ technology followed by barcoding and next-generation resequencing on an Illumina platform. As a result, we established the molecular diagnosis in 127/1,056 independent individuals (12.0 %) and identified a single heterozygous truncating mutation in an additional 31 individuals (2.9 %). Altogether, we detected 159 different mutations in 11 out of 13 different NPHP genes, 99 of which were novel. Phenotypically most remarkable were two patients with truncating mutations in INVS/NPHP2 who did not present as infants and did not exhibit extrarenal manifestations. In addition, we present the first case of Caroli disease due to mutations in WDR19/NPHP13 and the second case ever with a recessive mutation in GLIS2/NPHP7. This study represents the most comprehensive mutation analysis in NPHP-RC patients, identifying the largest number of novel mutations in a single study worldwide. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Ovunc B.,University of Michigan | Ovunc B.,Hacettepe University | Ashraf S.,University of Michigan | Vega-Warner V.,University of Michigan | And 6 more authors.
Nephron - Clinical Practice

Background: Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is defined as nephrotic syndrome that manifests within the first 3 months of life. Mutations in the NPHS1 gene encoding nephrin, are a major cause for CNS. Currently, more than 173 different mutations of NPHS1 have been published as causing CNS, affecting most exons. Methods: We performed mutation analysis of NPHS1 in a worldwide cohort of 20 families (23 children) with CNS. All 29 exons of the NPHS1 gene were examined using direct sequencing. New mutations were confirmed by demonstrating their absence in 96 healthy control individuals. Results: We detected disease-causing mutations in 9 of 20 families (45%). Seven of the families showed a homozygous mutation, while two were compound heterozygous. In another 2 families, single heterozygous NPHS1 mutations were detected. Out of 10 different mutations discovered, 3 were novel, consisting of 1 splice site mutation and 2 missense mutations. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that the spectrum of NPHS1 mutations is still expanding, involving new exons, in patients from a diverse ethnic background. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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