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El Anany A.M.,Egyptian Food Technology Research Institute
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of roasting process on the nutritional composition and nutritive value, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of guava seeds. Roasting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in moisture content, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and mineral contents, isoleucine, arginine, glutamic and total aromatic and sulfur amino acids, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) and flavonoids, while oil content increased. Subjecting guava seeds to 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min increased the total essential amino acids from 35.19 g/100 g protein in the raw sample to 36.96, 37.30 and 37.47 g/100 g protein in roasted samples, respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of guava seeds roasted at 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min were about 1.08, 1.14 and 1.18 times as high as that in unroasted seeds. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid, while leucine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and roasted guava seeds. Total phenolic contents was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased by roasting at 150 °C for 10 min. However, roasting at 150 °C for 15 and 20 min caused significant decrease in the phenolic content of guava seeds. Guava seeds subjected to roasting process showed higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source

Salama W.M.,Egyptian Food Technology Research Institute
International Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

This study was planned to improve the functional properties of buffalo Mozzarella through incorporating Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) in different forms either deneturated from cheese milk or addition in powder form in buffalo milk. Raw Buffalo milk was divided into 5 portions, the first portion was served as control without any treatments. Two portions were heated at temperatures of 75 and 85°C for 5 sec. Whey protein concentrate powder was added to rest two milk portions in ratio of 0.15 and 0.30%. Two controls of Mozzarella cheese were made from untreated cow and buffalo milk. All resultant cheeses were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory properties when fresh and after 2 and 4 weeks of storage period at 5±2°C. The cheese microstructure and texture analysis were also examined in fresh treatments. Addition of WPC into buffalo milk or higher heat treated milk lead to increase moisture of resultant cheese. The acidity value of raw buffalo Mozzarella (control) was the lowest compared to treatments either with added WPC into milk or of heat treated milk. Adding WPC into buffalo Mozzarella increased the meltability by up to double folds compared to buffalo control. The results indicated that, treatment fortified with WPC exhibited significantly lower hardness in resultant Mozzarella than that with higher heat treatment or raw milk. Also, adding 0.3% WPP in buffalo milk changed the structure of Mozzarella cheese to be more open and have more fibers. All cheeses were sensory acceptable but the best Mozzarella cheese of buffalo milk resulted by adding WPC in ratio 0.3% into buffalo milk. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Abd El-Salam B.A.,Egyptian Food Technology Research Institute
International Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The microstructure, texture and sensory properties of control (full fat) and experimental fresh Tallaga cheeses produced by replacing milk fat with Sunflower Oil (SO) and/or Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs displayed WPC cheese (total replacement of milk fat with whey protein cheese) with a compact and close network. Also, SO cheese (total replacement of milk fat with sunflower oil) showed a compact network with small uniform oil droplets embedded in the protein matrix, but full fat cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. Textural tests showed that the WPC cheese was harder, more cohesive, gummier and chewier than those of other experimental cheeses. The cheese with 50% sunflower oil and 25% whey protein concentrate was more acceptable than other experimental cheeses and showed a similar texture and structure to those of fresh full fat Tallaga cheese. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc. Source

El-Sisi A.S.,Egyptian Food Technology Research Institute
International Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

This study has aimed to investigate effect of replacement gelatin with chitosan at rate 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%. Significantly (p<0.05), the results show that total solids, fat, total protein, pH-values and specific gravity of mixes had not significant differences. Freezing point and ash content significantly increased with increasing of the replacement rate. On the contrary, replacement of gelatin with chitosan significantly decreased weight per gallon and melting resistance up to replacing ratio 60% then has increased. The overrun and viscosity of the ice-milk increased with the increasing of the replacement rate up to 60% then decreased, organoleptically, Ice-milk containing chitosan at rate 0, 20, 40 and 60% were rated acceptable by panelists and gained higher scores. It is recommended that chitosan can be used to replace up to 60% of gelatin to give ice milk of high quality and better nutritive value. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Elsabee M.Z.,Cairo University | Abdou E.S.,Egyptian Food Technology Research Institute | Abdou E.S.,Salman bin Abdulaziz University
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2013

Chitosan is a biodegradable biocompatible polymer derived from natural renewable resources with numerous applications in various fields, and one of which is the area of edible films and coatings. Chitosan has antibacterial and antifungal properties which qualify it for food protection, however, its weak mechanical properties, gas and water vapor permeability limit its uses. This review discusses the application of chitosan and its blends with other natural polymers such as starch and other ingredients for example essential oils, and clay in the field of edible films for food protection. The mechanical behavior and the gas and water vapor permeability of the films are also discussed. References dealing with the antimicrobial behavior of these films and their impact on food protection are explored. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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