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Gaubert P.,French Natural History Museum | Bloch C.,SYLVATROP | Benyacoub S.,University dAnnaba | Abdelhamid A.,Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. © 2012 Gaubert et al.

Attum O.,Indiana University Southeast | Rabia B.,Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2016

Dispersal from the release site and high mortality are two main factors that contribute to low retention of hard-released translocated wildlife. A soft-release translocation is a method that may increase the likelihood of translocation success because individuals are forced to acclimatize and become familiar to the new release site prior to the translocation. The objective of this study was to compare the movement patterns and retention rate of resident and translocated Egyptian tortoises that were translocated just prior to the start of the aestivation season and therefore were forced to aestivate at the release site (a forced in-activity soft-release). The retention rate of translocated tortoises, the proportion of tortoises that remained at the release site and alive by the end of the study, was 71% (5/7) compared to a retention rate of 100% for resident tortoises. There was no significant difference in the minimum convex polygon area, total distance moved, or the number of relocations during the activity season between resident and translocated tortoises. Our results suggest that a forced in-activity soft release consisting of translocating Egyptian tortoises just before the aestivation season may be effective in minimizing dispersal from the release site. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Abou Shady H.M.,Ain Shams University | Bakr A.E.A.,Ain Shams University | Bakr A.E.A.,Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency | Hashad M.E.,Cairo University | Alzohairy M.A.,Qassim University
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL+ isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence. © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda.

Allah S.A.,Hokkaido University | Allah S.A.,Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency | Mogi T.,Hokkaido University
Earth, Planets and Space | Year: 2016

Ontake Volcano is located in central Japan, 200 km northwest of Tokyo and erupted on September 27, 2014. To study the structure of Ontake Volcano and discuss the process of its phreatic eruption, which can help in future eruptions mitigation, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys using the grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system were conducted over Ontake Volcano. Field measurements and data analysis were done by OYO Company under the Sabo project managed by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Processed data and 1D resistivity models were provided by this project. We performed numerical forward modeling to generate a three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure model that fits the GREATEM data where a composite of 1D resistivity models was used as the starting model. A 3D electromagnetic forward-modeling scheme based on a staggered-grid finite-difference method was modified and used to calculate the response of the 3D resistivity model along each survey line. We verified the model by examining the fit of magnetic-transient responses between the field data and 3D forward-model computed data. The preferred 3D resistivity models show that a moderately resistive structure (30-200 m) is characteristic of most of the volcano, and were able to delineate a hydrothermal zone within the volcanic edifice. This hydrothermal zone may be caused by a previous large sector collapse. © 2016 Abd Allah and Mogi.

Eason P.,University of Louisville | Rabea B.,Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency | Attum O.,Indiana University Southeast
Journal of Field Ornithology | Year: 2012

Populations of many seabirds and other species that nest along coasts are declining due to habitat degradation and loss. An improved understanding of the species-specific factors that determine nest density across a landscape is therefore critical for conservation efforts. We examined factors that affected the density (number per hectare) and abundance (number at a sampling site) of nests of Little Terns (Sternula albifrons) on the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Terns preferred to nest on islands rather than the mainland, with islands constituting 64% of the area surveyed, but containing 99% of the 439 tern nests we found. Nest densities were highest on islands that were small, located at moderate distances from the mainland, and irregularly shaped or elongated. Most nests (69%) were on islands with areas < 3 ha, although these islands represented < 5% of total island area, and islands with the highest nest densities were 80-300 m from the mainland. Terrestrial predators were more likely to occur on larger islands, visiting three of the largest four islands. Most tern nests were within 1 m of shorelines, causing island perimeter to be a strong influence on nest density. Island shape was the only factor that significantly affected nest abundance, with more nests on islands with relatively long perimeters for their size. Our results suggest that protection or creation of relatively small, slender islands at moderate distances from shore may be an effective means of increasing the number of breeding sites for Little Terns. Although not generally considered a potential determinant of nest site preferences for seabirds, island shape is likely to be important for species that prefer sites adjacent to water, including species that nest on beaches and seaside cliffs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology © 2012 Association of Field Ornithologists.

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