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Kamel M.M.,Suez Canal University | Azab H.A.,Suez Canal University | El-Maragy H.A.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Mohamed A.M.,Abu Sultan Power Plant
Metall | Year: 2012

A new electroplating bath for tin deposition was developed. Sodium citrate was used as a complexing agent. The effects of bath composition, current density and temperature on the cathodic polarization, cathodic current efficiency, morphology and structure of deposit were studied. Optimum conditions for producing sound and satisfactory tin deposits were: 0.20 M SnCl2 2H20 and 0.20 M sodium citrate at pH = 5, c. d. = 3.80 mA cm -2 and 25 °C. The surface morphology of the deposited tin was investigated using SEM. The crystal structure was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The tin deposits have a tetragonal structure, (β-Sn form). The corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited tin in 3 % NaCl solution was examined by weight loss measurements. Tin coatings reduce the corrosion rate of steel from 0.190 to 0.059 mm y-1.


Okba M.H.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Saied M.H.,Abu Qir Fertilizers and Chemical Industries Co. | Mostafa M.Z.,Alexandria University | Abdel-Moneim T.M.,Alexandria University
IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference) | Year: 2012

Power Electronic converters are known to be generators of harmonics on both of their alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) sides. They also transfer existing harmonics from one side to the other with an associated change of frequency. In other words, the converters intercouple the AC and DC systems and thus act as a transfer medium for harmonics. In part I of this two-part paper, sources of current and voltage harmonics, influence of power electronic converters on high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems, and harmonics flow analysis with the 12-pulse converters of HVDC systems, are outlined. © 2012 IEEE.


Okba M.H.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Saied M.H.,Abu Qir Fertilizers and Chemical Industries Co. | Mostafa M.Z.,Alexandria University | Abdel-Moneim T.M.,Alexandria University
IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference) | Year: 2012

This paper is the second part of the review titled 'Harmonics in HVDC Links, Part I - Sources'. The effects of harmonics on power systems in addition to the harmonics reduction techniques in HVDC systems will be discussed in this complementary paper. © 2012 IEEE.


Abou El-Ela A.A.,Menoufia University | Allam S.M.,Menoufia University | Shatla M.M.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2010

Recently, the distributed power generation (DG) takes more attention, because of the constraints on the traditional power generation besides the great development in the DG technologies. To accommodate this new type of generation, the existing network should be utilized and developed in an optimal manner. This paper presents an optimal proposed approach (OPA) to determine the optimal sitting and sizing of DG with multi-system constraints to achieve a single or multi-objectives using genetic algorithm (GA). The linear programming (LP) is used not only to confirm the optimization results obtained by GA but also to investigate the influences of varying ratings and locations of DG on the objective functions. A real section of the West Delta sub-transmission network, as a part of Egypt network, is used to test the capability of the OPA. The results demonstrate that the proper sitting and sizing of DG are important to improve the voltage profile, increase the spinning reserve, reduce the power flows in critical lines and reduce the system power losses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


El-Hadidy M.A.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Helmi D.H.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Abdelhady M.S.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission
43rd International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2010, CIGRE 2010 | Year: 2010

The analysis of faults and wide system disturbances has always been a fundamental foundation for a secure and reliable electrical power supply. Lessons learned from the analysis of blackout events during last years, prove that the source and quality of data and information used in the analysis of such events are of top importance. The resolution of the recorded data varies for different system events, ranging from hundreds of samples in one cycle to few numbers of samples in a minute. As an example, from recording of Power Quality event's point of view, the requirements for recording voltage impulsive transients, temporary, sags, swells, harmonics and trend profile have quite different requirements of sampling frequency, data filtering, accuracy, time span,...etc. Also for system wider vision, the requirements to record system large disturbances and dynamics, oscillations, reclosure, voltage collapse and out of step conditions are quit different from fault recording requirements. The new competitive business environment forces utilities to formulate their strategies regarding productivity, quality and reliability of service, asset management, maintenance strategies, etc. One of the critical considerations for selection of multifunctional Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) may be their role in supporting the above mentioned functions, which in turn means that the IED evaluation criteria should include the capability for their use in defining existing and new applications. In the world-wide trend implementing IEC 61850 within the substations automation systems, there exist big debates about the necessity to use stand alone Disturbance Recorder. Most of utility personnel think the multifunction IED can also do all recording tasks (as add-on function) that the Disturbance Recorder can perform; i.e PQ monitoring, Fault Recording, fault location, Phasor Measurement and System Dynamic ...etc. This paper presents a technical comparison between the above mentioned two points of view: built-in recording within distributed IEDs and stand alone disturbance recording. It studies the effect of some factors such as analog and digital filtering process, noisy analog signals and sampling frequency on the recorded data. Triggering possibilities and recording capabilities are compared. The results obtained from this research threw some light on this issue which is important to both utility engineers and device manufacturers, through providing deep comparison between the gain and loss the utility will accordingly reach as a result of their selection.


Abdel-Latief A.N.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Abdel-Gawad A.F.,Zagazig University | Mandour M.E.,Zagazig University
43rd International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2010, CIGRE 2010 | Year: 2010

Presence of Flexible Alternating Current Systems FACTS device like Static Synchronous compensation STATCOM in the transmission system improves system stability and enhances system voltage, but certain other problems emerge in the field of power system protection, in particular, transmission line protection. This paper presents simulation results for investigation STATCOM impact on transient components of voltage and current during several types of faults. Also, this paper analyzes the apparent impedance which are seen by the relay in presence of STATCOM in single line to ground fault loop for identifying all factors which cause incorrect impedance measurement. These analyses have been implemented with an extensive simulation results to plot the relation between the apparent resistance and reactance against the fault location. In addition, the internal trip boundary characteristics, which will be required in presence of STATCOM to adapt the relay settings, are also plotted in R-X plan. These charactristics have been compared with the ideal Internal charactrsitic without the STATCOM as for single line to ground faults and line to line faults. Finally, the work suggests a new approach relies on Artificial Neural Networks ANN to achieve the resulted tripping characteristics of transmission line in presence of the STATCOM.


El-Hadidy M.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Farouk H.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Soudy B.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission
44th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2012 | Year: 2012

Zero sequence compensation factor is used for the correction of the distance protection reach in the case of ground faults. is essential for the accurate determination of the ground fault location by distance protection on a transmission line. This is much more critical in the case of underground cables rather than the case of overhead lines because of small lengths of cables besides their low impedance per unit length. should be set to reflect the actual grounding conditions of the protected cable or the distance protection will suffer from over or under reach [1]. A practical study based on actual measurements of for different 52 cables within the Egyptian electricity network shows that distance protection ground reach is sensitive for the value of. The soil nature and the grounding conditions normally affect the value of of the over head lines as well as cables. However, this effect for the underground cables is greater. The paper shows the results of measuring and its effect on the distance relay reach. It also shows that the setting of the factor is a characterizing parameter for each cable feeder even if the feeders are in the same route. Normally an average value of is taken for the three phases as all of the distance protection relays, up till now, deal only with a single valued factor for the three phases.


El-Hadidy M.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Helmi D.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission
44th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2012 | Year: 2012

On-line monitoring is a tool to check the speed and correctness of the protection systems and to monitor the reaction of the power system to disturbances. When used as part of a well developed strategy, on-line monitoring can be a powerful tool for utilities to use it to achieve its intended business benefits. Fault records are one of the most important pieces of evidence that event analysts can have during system event investigations. They can provide the reasons for premature equipment failure, supply waveforms and status of equipment behavior during an event, and give necessary information to perform post-fault event analysis. Utility engineers have to make balanced decisions as to what equipment is better to use for pre, during and post-event analysis. Disturbance Recorders (DRs) are to be located at key substations for the power system. Key substations are generally defined as transmission substations with significant connected generation, large transmission substations and transmission substations that are interconnected to major load centers. Also Disturbance Recorders are located at country cross borders to efficiently monitor the interconnections. An analysis of a record includes the characteristics and performance of the protection systems, the operation of the power system and the characteristics of the major components of the power system. Data available in records also help in verification of the system models used in the design of protection and emergency control systems. In Cigre 2010 [1], deep comparison between built-in recording within distributed Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) and stand alone disturbance recording has been achieved. The results obtained from that research illustrate that the selection of proper IEDs to do specific recording function is highly relied on the voltage level and desired application. At substation level, within the environment of IEC61850, full integration from the capabilities of all IEDs should be achieved. Disturbance Recorders can be used for primary recording functions, and Protection IEDs and Bay Control Units (BCUs) can be used as backup (up to certain extent). So, from the Utility side point of view, stand alone Disturbance Recorders are still a must for optimum analysis of sophisticated cases. This paper illustrates, in some value-event examples, the importance of the use of standalone Disturbance Recording System as an effective tool for system performance analysis and condition assessment. Some of the recorded cases were remotely collected from permanently connected DRs and others from portable recorders that were used to study certain unexplained phenomenon faced the utility personnel. These recorded cases emphasized, on practical bases, the advantages of standalone disturbance recording systems over built-in recording functionalities of different protection and control IED's as mentioned in [1]. These cases present the triggering capabilities, monitoring of relay system mal-operation, faulty relay performance, high frequency captured signals, frequency tracking capabilities, power quality problems, long term recording to analyze area brown out⋯.etc.


Ibrahim D.K.,Cairo University | Rezk M.E.,Egyptian Electricity Transmission | Abo El-Zahab E.E.-D.,Cairo University
ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference | Year: 2014

This paper presents a new adaptive tripping time scheme which provides high speed distance relay operation under fault conditions near the relay point and provides high secured detection for the faults occurred at the end of the protected transmission line with tripping time less than one power cycle. The proposed scheme automatically controls the data window length to adaptively speed up its response under various fault conditions. The advanced feature of this scheme provides capability for fast tripping decisions with secure operation. The proposed scheme possesses the advantage of removing decaying DC offset component in the current signals according to the length of data window, and compensates the capacitive current during the calculation of the fault impedance. Extensive simulations show that the proposed scheme provides better protection performance compared with the conventional schemes of the fixed data window. © 2014 IEEE.


News Article | November 9, 2015
Site: cleantechnica.com

Lekela Power, a joint venture company between Mainstream Renewable Power and investment firm Actis, has announced its third renewable energy project in Egypt. Lekela Power will set up a 250 MW wind energy project in Egypt which takes the company’s total project pipeline in Africa to 1.1 GW. Lekela Power was set up as a joint venture between developer Mainstream Renewable Power and investment fund Actis in 2015 in a $1.9 billion deal. Mainstream holds 40% in the joint venture while the balance 60% stake is owned by Actis. Lekela Power signed a memorandum of understanding to develop the project with the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company following a meeting with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi. The new wind energy project will be set up in the Gulf of Suez region. Lekela Power will develop, own, and operate the project, which is expected to require a total investment of $350 million. The company will also set up a 50 MW wind energy projects in Aswan, and an additional 50 MW solar power project will also be set up. A substantial portion of the 1.1 GW capacity under construction in various countries in Africa is expected to be commissioned next year, with projects expected to be commissioned in South Africa, Egypt, and Ghana. In South Africa, Lekela Power will develop five wind energy projects with a cumulative capacity of 610 MW. Three of these projects are already under construction, while work on the other two is expected to be begin in 2016. Construction on a 150 MW wind energy project in Ghana will also begin in 2016.   Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

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