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Manferdini C.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale | Maumus M.,Montpellier University | Gabusi E.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale | Piacentini A.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale | And 8 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013

Objective To examine the effect of different sources of Good Manufacturing Practice clinical grade adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on inflammatory factors in osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Methods AD-MSCs from infrapatellar Hoffa fat, subcutaneous (SC) hip fat, and SC abdominal fat were cocultured in Transwells with chondrocytes or synoviocytes. Inflammatory factors (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, CXCL1/growth-related oncogene α, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and CCL5/RANTES) were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or multiplex bead-based immunoassay. The role of different immunomodulators was analyzed. Results All the inflammatory factors analyzed were down-modulated at the messenger RNA or protein level independently by all 3 AD-MSC sources or by allogeneic AD-MSCs used in coculture with chondrocytes or synoviocytes. Inflammatory factor down-modulation was observed only when AD-MSCs were cocultured with chondrocytes or synoviocytes that produced high levels of inflammatory factors, but no effect was observed in cells that produced low levels of those factors, thus highlighting a dependence of the AD-MSC effect on existing inflammation. The immunomodulators IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, fibroblast growth factor 2, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, and galectin 1 were not involved in AD-MSC effects, whereas the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway exerted a role in the mechanism of antiinflammatory AD-MSC action. Conclusion The antiinflammatory effects of AD-MSCs are probably not dependent on AD-MSC adipose tissue sources and donors but rather on the inflammatory status of OA chondrocytes and synoviocytes. AD-MSCs seem to be able to sense and respond to the local environment. Even though a combination of different molecules may be involved in AD-MSC effects, the COX-2/PGE2 pathway may play a role, suggesting that AD-MSCs may be useful for therapies in osteoarticular diseases. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Manferdini C.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale | Manferdini C.,SD Laboratorio RAMSES | Paolella F.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale | Gabusi E.,SD Laboratorio RAMSES | And 7 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2016

Background: The aim of the study was to characterize synovial cells from OA synovium with low-grade and moderate-grade synovitis and to define the role of synovial macrophages in cell culture. Methods: Synovial tissue explants were analyzed for the expression of typical markers of synovial fibroblasts (SF), synovial macrophages (SM) and endothelial cells. Synovial cells at passage 1 (p.1) and 5 (p.5) were analyzed for different phenotypical markers by flow cytometric analysis, inflammatory factors by multiplex immunoassay, anabolic and degradative factors by qRT-PCR. P.1 and p.5 synovial cells as different cell models were co-cultured with adipose stem cells (ASC) to define SM effects. Results: Synovial tissue showed a higher percentage of CD68 marker in moderate compared with low-grade synovitis. Isolated synovial cells at p.1 were positive to typical markers of SM (CD14, CD16, CD68, CD80 and CD163) and SF (CD55, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD106), whereas p.5 synovial cells were positive only to SF markers and showed a higher percentage of CD55 and CD106. At p.1 synovial cells released a significantly higher amount of all inflammatory (IL6, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and some anabolic (IL10) factors than those of p.5. Moreover, p.1 synovial cells also expressed a higher amount of some degradative factors (MMP13, S100A8, S100A9) than p.5 synovial cells. Co-culture experiments showed that the amount of SM in p.1 synovial cells differently induced or down-modulated some of the inflammatory (IL6, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and degradative factors (ADAMTS5, MMP13, S100A8, S100A9). Conclusions: We found that p.1 (mix of SM and SF) and p.5 (only SF) synovial cells represent two cell models that effectively reproduce the low- or moderate-grade synovitis environment. The presence of SM in culture specifically induces the modulation of the different factors analyzed, confirming that SM are key effector cells. © 2016 Manferdini et al.

Rojewski M.T.,University of Ulm | Rojewski M.T.,DRK Blutspendedienst Baden Wurttemberg Hessen gemeinnutzige GmbH | Fekete N.,University of Ulm | Fekete N.,DRK Blutspendedienst Baden Wurttemberg Hessen gemeinnutzige GmbH | And 10 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2013

The estimated frequency of MSCs in BM is about 0.001-0.01% of total nucleated cells. Most commonly, one applied therapeutic cell dose is about 1-5 million MSCs/kg body weight, necessitating a reliable, fast, and safe expansion system. The limited availability of MSCs demands for an extensive ex vivo amplification step to accumulate sufficient cell numbers. Human platelet lysate (PL) has proven to be a safe and feasible alternative to animal-derived serum as supplement for MSC cultivation. We have investigated the functionally closed automated cell culture hollow fiber bioreactor Quantum cell expansion system as an alternative novel tool to conventional tissue flasks for efficient clinical-scale MSC isolation and expansion from bone marrow using PL. Cells expanded in the Quantum system fulfilled MSC criteria as shown by flow cytometry and adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Cell surface expression of a variety of chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, and additional MSC markers was monitored for several passages by flow cytometry. The levels of critical media components like glucose and lactate were analyzed. PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB/ BB, bFGF, TGF-β1, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, RANTES, GRO, VEGF, sCD40L, and IL-6 were assessed using a LUMINEX platform. Originally optimized for the use of fetal calf serum (FCS) as supplement and fibronectin as coating reagent, we succeeded to obtain an average of more than 100 × 106 of MSCs from as little as 18.8-28.6 ml of BM aspirate using PL. We obtained similar yields of MSCs/μl BM in the FCS-containing and the xenogen-free expansion system. The Quantum system reliably produces a cellular therapeutic dose in a functionally closed system that requires minimal manipulation. Both isolation and expansion are possible using FCS or PL as supplement. Coating of the hollow fibers of the bioreactor is mandatory when loading MSCs. Fibronectin, PL, and human plasma may serve as coating reagents. © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

Prel A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sensebe L.,EFS Pyrenees Mediterranee | Sensebe L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pages J.-C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
BMC Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Background: Deliberate cellular reprogramming is becoming a realistic objective in the clinic. While the origin of the target cells is critical, delivery of bioactive molecules to trigger a shift in cell-fate remains the major hurdle. To date, several strategies based either on non-integrative vectors, protein transfer or mRNA delivery have been investigated. In a recent study, a unique modification in the retroviral genome was shown to enable RNA transfer and its expression.Results: Here, we used the retroviral mRNA delivery approach to study the impact of modifying gene-flanking sequences on RNA transfer. We designed modified mRNAs for retroviral packaging and used the quantitative luciferase assay to compare mRNA expression following viral transduction of cells. Cloning the untranslated regions of the vimentin or non-muscular myosin heavy chain within transcripts improved expression and stability of the reporter gene while slightly modifying reporter-RNA retroviral delivery. We also observed that while the modified retroviral platform was the most effective for retroviral mRNA packaging, the highest expression in target cells was achieved by the addition of a non-viral UTR to mRNAs containing the packaging signal.Conclusions: Through molecular engineering we have assayed a series of constructs to improve retroviral mRNA transfer. We showed that an authentic RNA retroviral genomic platform was most efficiently transferred but that adding UTR sequences from highly expressed genes could improve expression upon transfection while having only a slight effect on expression from transferred RNA. Together, these data should contribute to the optimisation of retroviral mRNA-delivery systems that test combinations of UTRs and packaging platforms. © 2013 Prel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Manferdini C.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale | Manferdini C.,Laboratorio RAMSES | Maumus M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Maumus M.,Montpellier University | And 10 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2015

Objective: To define whether good manufacturing practice (GMP)-clinical grade adipose stem cell (ASC)-derived conditioned medium (CM) is as effective as GMP-ASC in modulating inflammatory and catabolic factors released by both osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes or synoviocytes. Methods: OA chondrocytes and synoviocytes were treated with ASC-CM or co-cultured with ASC. Inflammatory factors (IL6, CXCL1/GROα,CXCL8/IL8, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL5/RANTES) and proteinases, such as metalloproteinase (MMP13), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS4, ADAMTS5) and their tissue metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMP1, TIMP3) were evaluated by qRT-PCR or immunoassays. The involvement of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was also analyzed. Results: Most ASC-CM ratios tested did not decrease IL6, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP1-α, CCL5/RANTES on basal inflamed chondrocytes or synoviocytes in contrast to what we found using ASC in co-culture. CXCL8/IL8 and CXCL1/GROα were not decreased by ASC-CM on synoviocytes but were only partially reduced on chondrocytes. Moreover, ASC-CM was less efficient both on basal inflamed OA chondrocytes and synoviocytes in reducing proteinases, such as MMP13, ADAMTS4, ADAMTS5 and increasing TIMP1 and TIMP3 compared to ASC in co-culture. The different ratios of ASC-CM contain lower amounts of PGE2 which were not sufficient to reduce inflammatory factors. Conclusions: These data show that ASC-CM has a limited ability to decrease inflammatory and proteinases factors produced by OA chondrocytes or synoviocytes. ASC-CM is not sufficient to recapitulate the beneficial effect demonstrated using ASC in co-culture with inflamed OA chondrocytes and synoviocytes and shows that their use in clinical trials is fundamental to counteract OA progression. © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

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