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Rijswijk, Netherlands

Van der Heijden M.G.M.,TU Eindhoven | Loomans M.G.L.C.,TU Eindhoven | Lemaire A.D.,Efectis Nederland BV | Hensen J.L.M.,TU Eindhoven
Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011: 12th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association | Year: 2011

Guidelines for the safe design of semi-open car parks require a minimum amount of open façade in order to ensure an effective removal of heat and smoke during a car fire. In this study the fire safety level is assessed by the use of validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of different design variants. The fire safety is assessed using temperature and sight length criteria for safe deployment of the fire department. Results show that 3 out of 7 studied variants did not meet these criteria. It is therefore concluded that it is possible to design semi-open car parks which comply with current Dutch guidelines, yet when assessed with criteria for safe deployment of the fire brigade have an insufficient fire safety level. Source


van Belle N.J.C.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | van Putten E.M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | de Groot A.C.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Meeussen V.J.A.,Efectis Nederland BV | Banus S.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

On Sunday April 13, 2008 a fire broke out on a grandstand in the Euroborg soccer stadium in Groningen The Netherlands. The polyamide chairs on the grandstand were set on fire and supporters were exposed to the emitted smoke which induced mild health effects. The Dutch government was concerned about potential health risks that such fires could have to exposed fans. Especially the exposure to toxic fumes was considered a risk because prior research has proven that large amounts of chemical compounds are emitted during the burning of chemical substances such as polyamide. Among these emitted compounds are HCN, CO, NO x, NH 3 and volatile organic compounds. To study if supporters were exposed to hazardous chemical compounds we designed a laboratory controlled replica of a part of the grandstand of the Euroborg stadium to perform fire-experiments. This simulation of the fire under controlled circumstances proved that a wide variety of chemicals were emitted. Especially the emission of CO and NO x were high, but also the emission of formaldehyde might be toxicologically relevant. The emission of HCN and NH 3 were less than expected. Exposure assessment suggests that the exposure to NO x is the main health risk for the supporters that were present at the Euroborg fire. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


van der Heijden M.G.M.,TU Eindhoven | Loomans M.G.L.C.,TU Eindhoven | Lemaire A.D.,Efectis Nederland BV | Hensen J.L.M.,TU Eindhoven
Building Simulation | Year: 2013

Guidelines for the safe design of semi-open car parks require a minimum amount of open facade in order to ensure an effective removal of heat and smoke during a car fire. In this study the fire safety level of semi-open car parks is assessed by the use of validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for seven different variants. The validation of these simulations consisted of two analyses namely a comparison with measured data of a case study and secondly a comparison with the Alpert's correlations. The dimensions of the seven variants in the assessment are based on a survey of 75 semi-open car parks in the Netherlands, out of which a typical geometry could be determined. The reached fire safety of the car park variants which comply with the guideline NEN2443 are assessed using temperature and sight length criteria for safe deployment of the fire department. Results show that three out of seven studied variants did not meet these criteria, for one variant the safety level was questionable. It is therefore concluded that it is possible to design semi-open car parks which comply with the commonly used Dutch guideline, yet when assessed with criteria for safe deployment of the fire brigade have an insufficient fire safety level. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Cheong M.K.,Land Transport Authority | Cheong W.O.,Land Transport Authority | Leong K.W.,Land Transport Authority | Lemaire A.D.,Efectis Nederland BV | Noordijk L.M.,Efectis Nederland BV
Fire Technology | Year: 2014

A series of large-scale fire tests for road tunnel application was conducted in a test tunnel facility in Spain. The aim of this fire tests program was to investigate the magnitude of the heat release rate generated by a fire in heavy goods vehicles (HGV's) with and without a fire suppression system in tunnels in Singapore; the possibility of interchanging a fire suppression system with other measures such as lowering the longitudinal flow velocity; and to acquire information on the appropriate design parameters (e.g., nozzle type, discharge density and activation time) to adopt based on the most probable fuel load used in these road tunnels. In order to ensure repeatability, simulated HGV's consisting of 228 pallets with 48 plastic pallets (20%) and 180 wooden pallets (80%) were used in all fire tests. An air velocity of approximately 3 m/s was applied. As the scope of work covered in this fire test program is very large, only the setup of the fire test and the findings on the effects of heat release rate with (Test 4) and without (Test 7) a fixed water based fire-fighting system are covered. The test results indicate that a substantial reduction of fire heat release rate can be obtained using a low-pressure deluge fire suppression system, as long as timely activation of the water is provided. However, the influence of the suppression system on CO production is significant. Such experimental data address the current dearth of knowledge on the actual effect of low-pressure deluge systems on the heat release rate from HGVs in tunnel fires. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Tarada F.,Mosen Ltd | Noordijk L.M.,Efectis Nederland BV | Cheong M.K.,Land Transport Authority of Singapore | Cheong W.O.,Land Transport Authority of Singapore | Leong K.W.,Land Transport Authority of Singapore
BHR Group - 15th International Symposium on Aerodynamics, Ventilation and Fire in Tunnels 2013 | Year: 2013

There has been substantial interest in the use of fire suppression systems to reduce risks to tunnel structures, improve life safety and to enhance road network integrity. A key factor in delivering these benefits is the reduction in heat release rates from fires through the deployment of fire suppression, as reported in our companion paper to this Symposium. However, it is this paper's contention that fire suppression provides another dimension in the delivery of risk-reduction benefits: namely, that a significant proportion of the residual fire heat release rate is absorbed through a benign process of heating and evaporation of water, rather than through convection or radiation. Measurements were undertaken during the course of medium-scale fire tests using stacks of wooden (80%) and plastic (20%) pallets. This combination of combustibles was considered to be representative of HGV loads in Singapore. The fire heat release rates were estimated using the oxygen depletion calorimetry method, based on sensors installed within a smoke exhaust hood. A low-pressure deluge system with discharge density in the range of 8-12mm/min was used in the tests. Results from the medium-scale fire tests and also from full-scale fire tests suggest that the convective heat transfer rate is generally no more than 50% of the suppressed fire heat release rate. This finding may allow a reduction in the capacity of longitudinal ventilation systems for smoke control. © BHR Group 2013. Source

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