Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Abingdon, United Kingdom

Mertens P.,Culham Center for Fusion Energy | Mertens P.,Julich Research Center | Altmann H.,Culham Center for Fusion Energy | Chaumet P.,Julich Research Center | And 12 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2011

In the frame of the ITER-like Wall (ILW) for the JET tokamak, a divertor row made of bulk tungsten material has been developed for the position where the outer strike point is located in most of the foreseen plasma configurations. In the absence of active cooling, this represents a formidable challenge when one considers the temperature reached by tungsten (TW,surf > 2000 °C) and the vertical gradient ∂T/∂z = 5 × 104 K/m. As the development is drawing to an end and most components are in production, actual 1:1 prototypes are exposed to an ion beam with a power density around 7 MW/m2 on the plasma-facing surface. Advantage is taken of the flexibility of the Marion facility to bombard the tungsten stack under shallow angles of incidence (∼6°) with a powerful beam of ions and neutrals (>70 MW/m2 on axis). The shallow angles are important, with respect to the toroidal wetted surface, for properly simulating the expected performance under actual tokamak conditions. The Marion tests have been used to validate for a few typical cases the thermal calculations that were steadily developed along with the tungsten tile and, at the same time, to gather information on the actual temperatures of individual components. The latter is an important factor to a finer estimation of the power handling capabilities. © 2011 EURATUM. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Huber A.,Julich Research Center | Brezinsek S.,Julich Research Center | Mertens P.,Julich Research Center | Schweer B.,Julich Research Center | And 24 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2012

A new endoscope with optimised divertor view has been developed in order to survey and monitor the emission of specific impurities such as tungsten and the remaining carbon as well as beryllium in the tungsten divertor of JET after the implementation of the ITER-like wall in 2011. The endoscope is a prototype for testing an ITER relevant design concept based on reflective optics only. It may be subject to high neutron fluxes as expected in ITER. The operating wavelength range, from 390 nm to 2500 nm, allows the measurements of the emission of all expected impurities (W I, Be II, C I, C II, C III) with high optical transmittance (≥30% in the designed wavelength range) as well as high spatial resolution that is ≤2 mm at the object plane and ≤3 mm for the full depth of field (±0.7 m). The new optical design includes options for in situ calibration of the endoscope transmittance during the experimental campaign, which allows the continuous tracing of possible transmittance degradation with time due to impurity deposition and erosion by fast neutral particles. In parallel to the new optical design, a new type of possibly ITER relevant shutter system based on pneumatic techniques has been developed and integrated into the endoscope head. The endoscope is equipped with four digital CCD cameras, each combined with two filter wheels for narrow band interference and neutral density filters. Additionally, two protection cameras in the λ > 0.95 μm range have been integrated in the optical design for the real time wall protection during the plasma operation of JET. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source


Huber A.,Julich Research Center | Brezinsek S.,Julich Research Center | Mertens P.,Julich Research Center | Schweer B.,Julich Research Center | And 24 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2013

In preparation for ITER, JET has been upgraded with a new ITER-like wall (ILW) whereby the main plasma-facing components, previously made of carbon, have been replaced by Be in the main chamber and W in the divertor. A new endoscope with optimised divertor view has been developed in order to survey and monitor the emission of specific impurities such as tungsten, beryllium and the possibly remaining carbon in the tungsten divertor of the JET-ILW. It operates in the wavelength range from 390 nm to 2500 nm with high optical transmittance (≥30%) as well as high spatial resolution, that is ≤2 mm at the object plane and ≤3 mm over the whole depth of field (±0.7 m). The endoscope is a prototype for testing an ITER relevant design concept based on reflective optics only. The endoscope has an optimised observation in the near ultraviolet and in the blue spectral region to ensure the detection of the W I-emission line at 400.8 nm. In parallel to the new optical design, a new type of ITER-like shutter system based on pneumatic techniques has been developed and integrated in the endoscope head. The new optical design includes options for an in situ calibration of the endoscope transmittance during the experimental campaign. © 2013 EURATOM. Source

Discover hidden collaborations