Tallinn, Estonia
Tallinn, Estonia

Eesti Energia AS is a private limited energy company in Estonia with its headquarters in Tallinn. It is the world's biggest oil shale to energy company. The company was founded in 1939. As of 2014, it operates in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Jordan and Utah, United States. In Estonia the company operates under the name Eesti Energia, while using the brand name Enefit for international operations. The main raw material for energy production – oil shale – is extracted from mines located in Eastern-Estonia and owned by the company. The group of Eesti Energia has three main operation areas: electricity generation, shale oil production, and sale and distribution electricity. Its shares are owned by the Government of Estonia. Wikipedia.

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Market Research Report on Oil Shale market 2016 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Oil Shale worldwide. First of all,"Global Oil Shale Market 2016" report provides a basic overview of the Oil Shale industry including definitions, classifications, applications and Oil Shale industry chain structure. The analysis is provided for the Oil Shale international market including development history, Oil Shale industry competitive landscape analysis.  This report "Worldwide Oil Shale Market 2016" also states import/export, supply and consumption figures and Oil Shale market cost, price, revenue and Oil Shale market's gross margin by regions (United States, EU, China and Japan), as well as other regions can be added in Oil Shale Market area. Major Manufacturers are covered in this research report are BNK Petroleum Chevron Eesti Energia Exxon Mobil Fushun Mining Group Global Oil Shale Group Jordan Oil Shale Company Petróleo Brasileiro Queensland Energy Resources Questerre Energy This report studies Oil Shale in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with sales, price, revenue and market share. Then, the report focuses on worldwide Oil Shale market key players with information such as company profiles with product picture as well as specification. Related information to Oil Shale market- capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Aslo includes Oil Shale industry's - Upstream raw materials, equipment and downstream consumers analysis is also carried out. What’s more, the Oil Shale market development trends and Oil Shale industry marketing channels are analyzed. Finally, "Worldwide Oil Shale Market" Analysis- feasibility of new investment projects is assessed, and overall research conclusions are offered.

Puura V.,University of Tartu | Soesoo A.,Tallinn University of Technology | Voolma M.,Tallinn University of Technology | Hade S.,Tallinn University of Technology | Aosaar H.,Eesti Energia
Oil Shale | Year: 2016

The concession area of the Jordan Oil Shale Energy Co (JOSE) is located in the southern border zone of the Attarat Um Ghudran deposit, next to the Wadi Maghara deposit, both consisting of marinite type oil shale (OS). These deposits of the Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleogene Muwaqqar Chalk-Marl Formation form a huge north-southward elongated oil shale basin in Central Jordan, with resources over 55 billion tons. JOSE has drilled a regular grid of boreholes with a full coring of the up to 90 m thick OS seam and its lower and upper contact layers. Visually, the OS unit is a rather homogenous dark-colored (grey, black, brownish grey) succession of finely bedded (laminated) kerogen-bearing carbonate rocks that has been in earlier papers described as a uniform lithological unit. The aim of the geological and lithological studies of the JOSE exploration area was (i) to investigate the vertical variation of OS composition and, if present, to define layers within the OS unit, and (ii) to identify lithological varieties and chemical composition of OS present in different layers. On the basis of field evidence, downhole gamma-logging, chemical analyses and other criteria, an original detailed scheme of the layered structure of oil shale and barren rocks was introduced. A total of eight OS layers (indexed as A, B1, B2, C, D, E1, E2, E3) and at least four barren dolomitic limestone interlayers were distinguished. The present publication is dedicated to the chemical study of the layers and the total OS seam. A representative gapless collection of 632 conventional core samples from 12 cores serves as the base for the comparative study of the layers. Two main (SiO2, CaO) and two subordinate chemical (Al2O3 and P2O5) components of the mineral matter (MM), and loss on ignition (LOI 500 °C) approximately reflecting the content of organic matter (OM), are the basic variables discussed. Contents of SiO2 and CaO always show negative correlation, whereas local enrichment with Al2O3 and P2O5 occurs in certain interbeds. OM content in samples has no strong correlation with mineral matter abundances. The eight distinguished OS layers comprise both those strongly enriched in CaO, or oppositely in SiO2. The layers differ in rate of internal heterogeneity reflected in variation of standard deviation values. With rare exceptions, the barren limestone interlayers are dolomitized, strongly enriched with MgO and depleted of CaO. The database on the distribution of mineral compounds and trace elements serves for the 3-D block modelling of the deposit composition. However, further data analysis is required for the understanding of lateral changes of the layers’ mineral composition, and geological and geochemical structure. © 2016 Estonian Academy Publishers.

Uibu M.,Tallinn University of Technology | Somelar P.,University of Tartu | Raado L.-M.,Tallinn University of Technology | Irha N.,Estonian National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics | And 3 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2016

The combustion of oil shale (OS) in electric power plants is accompanied by the generation of vast amounts of waste ash. One promising idea to maximize the recovery of oil shale from mines is to backfill them with oil shale ash (OSA)-based concrete. However, the properties of this concrete have yet to be analyzed in detail and this approach also raises concerns about the risk of polluting both surface and groundwater. To address these concerns we developed different types of OSA-based concretes and characterized their structure and leaching characteristics. This information enables us to predict the type and durability of each respective ash stone. A compressive strength of 1-5 MPa was achieved after 7 days (maximum after 28 days > 25 MPa). During the early stages of curing, the pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the leachates exceeded or were close to the limits set for general wastes, however, both properties decreased considerably after 28 days (pH < 11.5; EC < 1000 μs/cm). In order to utilize OSA on a large scale, the composite blends we developed should be further optimized by adding ground high-calcium fly ashes, Portland cement, or other components. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kuusik R.,Tallinn University of Technology | Uibu M.,Tallinn University of Technology | Kirsimae K.,Tallinn University of Technology | Motlep R.,University of Tartu | Meriste T.,Eesti Energia
Oil Shale | Year: 2012

The growing demand for the world energy supply necessitates the employment of local low-grade fossil fuels like oil shale (OS). The use of such fuels is accompanied by the formation of large amounts of waste ash, which are usually disposed of in open-air deposits and may hence lead to serious environmental problems. The nature of environmental hazards depends on the composition and properties of the deposited ash, which in turn are derived from the composition of the initial fuel, as well as its processing parameters. The exploitation of Estonian OS deposits has a near centurylong history, including over 60 years of industrial production of heat and power, and the respective management of ash deposits. In the current paper, the results of the last decade's studies on the processes taking place in Estonian OS ash fields have been analysed. The complex composition of ash and its transformation reactions under ambient conditions have been considered. It is shown that the hydraulic ash removal and wet depositing system works as a natural CO2 trap. The algorithm for the calculation of the resulting effect has been evaluated. © 2012 Estonian Academy Publishers.

News Article | December 9, 2016
Site: www.theguardian.com

The European Central Bank’s (ECB) quantitative easing programme is systematically investing billions of euros in the oil, gas and auto industries, according to a new analysis. The ECB has already purchased €46bn (£39bn) of corporate bonds since last June in a bid to boost flagging eurozone growth rates, a figure that some analysts expect to rise to €125bn by next September. On Thursday the bank said it would extend the scheme until 2018. But an EU pledge to cut its carbon emissions by at least 80% by mid-century could be undermined by the asset purchasing scheme, according to investments revealed in an analysis of the bank’s international security identification numbers (ISINs) by campaign group Corporate Europe Observatory. These show that the bank has made 11 separate bond purchases from Shell, 16 from the Italian oil company Eni, seven from Total, and six each from Repsol and OMV. In Italy, gas utilities account for 68% of securities transactions bought with QE money, and in Spain the figure is 53%. The ECB says that it cannot reveal the value of individual bond purchases without creating a market distortion. Bank sources confirmed that they were aware of all the ISIN numbers. “We have a monetary policy objective with our programme and that, for us, is the prevailing reasoning,” one source told the Guardian. Unlike the European Investment Bank (EIB) or European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the ECB is not obliged to consider the effect that its investments may have on climate change. But the shadow climate minister, Barry Gardiner, told the Guardian: “The European Central Bank should be aligned with Europe’s industrial strategy and energy policy. By signing up to the Paris agreement, the EU has committed to create a net zero carbon economy in the second half of the century. “Therefore the investments that the ECB supports should not undermine Europe’s central policy thrust to transition its economy to one powered by clean energy.” Dr Simon Zadek, the co-director of the UN environment programme’s inquiry into the design of a sustainable financial system, said: “In 2016, it is no longer acceptable to have a monetary policy that is misaligned with long-term policy objectives whether these concern growth, climate change, or other aspects of sustainable development. “The ECB should take the opportunity of its QE program to explain how its actions align with Europe’s climate commitments, and then move to correct any imbalances.” ECB sources say that as an independent central bank, no change to the current QE policy could come from any other source than the bank’s decision-making bodies. At present, the ECB coordinates bond-buys by national central banks in eurozone countries, under a corporate securities purchasing programme (CSPP). Purchases are often carried out in line with national priorities. The Bundesbank’s most frequent securities acquisitions were in car industry flagships Daimler and BMW (15 times each), and in VW (7 times). The ECB has also purchased bonds in Estonia’s Eesti Energia, which invests heavily in north American tar sands operations, and in the Austrian gaming corporation, Novomatic. An ECB spokesman disagreed that oil, gas and auto investments are over-represented in its asset purchases and said the “ holdings of bonds issued by different economic sectors are broadly in line with those of the eligible universe”. Kenneth Haar, who authored the analysis for the Corporate Europe Observatory , said: “Whichever way you look at it, this investment pattern cannot be justified. We should be looking for a public investment policy that puts combating climate change and creating jobs first, not mindlessly throwing public money into the coffers of Big Oil and car makers. “It would have made so much more sense to use these billions of euros to create employment in environmentally sustainable sectors instead.”

Vansovits V.,Metso Automation Inc. | Petlenkov E.,TUT | Vassiljeva K.,TUT | Guljajev A.,Eesti Energia
Proceedings of the Biennial Baltic Electronics Conference, BEC | Year: 2012

Widely used PID controller has number of limitations that do not allow using it effectively to solve complicated control issues. The framework of the solution is presented in the paper. A nonlinear model of a district heat plant boiler is identified by training an artificial neural network. The model is used to predict the behavior of real plant. © 2012 IEEE.

Roslyakov P.V.,Moscow Power Engineering Institute | Zaichenko M.N.,Moscow Power Engineering Institute | Melnikov D.A.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute | Vereshetin V.A.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute | Attikas R.,Eesti Energia
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler’s current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Toom K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Jurjenson K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Juhanson T.,Eesti Energia | Annuk A.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Engineering for Rural Development | Year: 2011

Under certain circumstances, the transmission system operator (TSO) can face the need to reduce the power output of the wind parks. In a market based setup the wind power producers will normally pay for the balancing costs of wind power. Therefore, the more accurate the forecast of wind power, the lower the balancing costs for the wind power producers will be. From a socio-economic perspective, better forecasting will reduce the total generation costs due to the more optimal dispatch of power plants. The operators of the wind parks integrated into the transmission network are responsible for presenting a 24h-forecast of their output power to TSO. The real wind power differs from the forecast one. This difference needs balancing by the rest of the energy system. In the Estonian conditions, it means the regulation of the capacity of oil-shale-fuelled power plants which induces an accelerated wear, additional emissions and fuel consumption of the power plants. The reason why wind park output power is particularly difficult to forecast at wind speeds of 6-10 m·s -1 is due the fact that electricity generation of wind turbines changes markedly between these speeds.

Tohver T.,Eesti Energia
Oil Shale | Year: 2010

The paper deals with utilization of oil shale mining waste rock in Estonia. Crushed waste rock is utilized as an aggregate in civil engineering in frostfree environmental conditions and in road building in unbound mixtures where required resistance to fragmentation LA ≤ 35%. This study determines areas of utilization of waste rock and shows that waste rock aggregate produced using selective mining or selective crushing technology is usable in civil engineering in partially saturated conditions and in unbound mixtures where aggregates require resistance to fragmentation LA ≤ 30%. Waste rock is usable for backfilling the already mined areas. © 2010 Estonian Academy Publishers.

Surface miners (further SM) can find their natural applications in projects where drilling and blasting is prohibited or where high-selective mining of mineral seams required. Selective mining improves the quality of oil shale. Through the cutting quality the mineral resource utilisation is more effective and environmental impact is lower. The present paper introduces a highly selective oil-shale mining technology and results of an analysis on cutting and quality parameters. Size distribution and calorific value of oil shale is in dependence on cutting thickness and cutting (advance) speed. It is possible to achieve required average size of mined oil-shale particles, which was confirmed by the present investigation data. The information obtained enables specialists to improve the quality of mining works by means of fuel consumption optimisation. © 2011 Estonian Academy Publishers.

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