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Shiou S.-R.,University of Chicago | Yu Y.,University of Chicago | Guo Y.,University of Chicago | He S.-M.,Queens University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Balance among the complex interactions of the gut microbial community is important for intestinal health. Probiotic bacteria can improve bacterial balance and have been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening inflammatory bowel disorder primarily affecting premature infants. NEC is associated with extensive inflammatory NF-κB signaling activation as well as intestinal barrier disruption. Clinical studies have shown that probiotic administration may protect against NEC, however there are safety concerns associated with the ingestion of large bacterial loads in preterm infants. Bacteria-free conditioned media (CM) from certain probiotic organisms have been shown to retain bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties without the risks of live organisms. We hypothesized that the CM from Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), Bifidobacterium infantis (Bi), and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp), used separately or together would protect against NEC. A rodent model with intestinal injury similar to NEC was used to study the effect of CM from Lp, La/Bi, and La/Bi/Lp on the pathophysiology of NEC. All the CM suppressed NF-κB activation via preserved IκBα expression and this protected IκBα was associated with decreased liver activity of the proteasome, which is the degrading machinery for IκBα. These CM effects also caused decreases in intestinal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, a downstream target of the NF-κB pathway. Combined La/Bi and La/Bi/Lp CM in addition protected intestinal barrier function by maintaining tight junction protein ZO-1 levels and localization at the tight junction. Double combined La/Bi CM significantly reduced intestinal injury incidence from 43% to 28% and triple combined La/Bi/Lp CM further reduced intestinal injury incidence to 20%. Thus, this study demonstrates different protective mechanisms and synergistic bioactivity of the CM from different organisms in ameliorating NEC-like intestinal injury in an animal model. © 2013 Shiou et al.

Lo S.S.,Loyola University | Khorana A.A.,University of Rochester | Javle M.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Simon S.,University of Pittsburgh | And 8 more authors.
Oncology | Year: 2010

Objective: Docetaxel and capecitabine are active agents in advanced gastric and gastroesophageal (GE) carcinomas. This multi-institutional phase II trial evaluates the combination of docetaxel and capecitabine as first- or second-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric and GE adenocarcinomas. Methods: Patients who had received 1 or no prior chemotherapy regimens were eligible. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of a 21-day cycle with docetaxel 30 mg/m 2 administered on days 1 and 8 and capecitabine 825 mg/m2 administered twice daily on days 1-14. The primary end point of the study was overall survival (OS). Results: Forty patients were enrolled in the study; 39 received treatment and were evaluable for response and toxicity. The median patient age was 61 years (range 21-84); 8 patients had received prior chemotherapy in the advanced or metastatic setting. Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 15 patients (38%), including diarrhea in 5 patients (13%) and hand-foot syndrome in 5 patients (13%). The overall response rate was 32% [95% confidence interval (CI) 16.7-51.4]. The median time to progression and OS were 3.4 months (95% CI 2.7-5.8) and 10.7 months (95% CI 6.1-12.1), respectively. Conclusions: The regimen of docetaxel and capecitabine is a well-tolerated, easily administered and active outpatient regimen for advanced gastric and GE adenocarcinoma. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Havey J.,Loyola University Chicago | Havey J.,Loyola University | Vlasses F.R.,Loyola University Chicago | Vlasses P.H.,Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education ACPE | And 2 more authors.
Anthrozoos | Year: 2014

Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been used in a variety of healthcare settings and studies to evaluate the potential patient benefits are warranted. This retrospective study measured the impact of AAT on the use of oral pain medications by adults after total joint replacement surgery. One group of patients received care in a hospital with an AAT program and the comparison group was in a hospital without an AAT program. Adult patient cohorts were matched on: age, gender, ethnicity, length of stay, and Diagnosis Related Group code for type of total joint replacement. Pain medication doses, converted into morphine equivalent daily doses (MEDD), were compared. Pain medication use was significantly less in the AAT group: 15.32 mg vs. 21.16 (t (119) = 2.72, p = 0.007). The effectiveness of AAT in decreasing the need for pain medication and its effect on patient well-being in the post-operative period and in other settings deserves further study. © ISAZ 2014.

Gifford J.,Edward Hospital | Larimer K.,DePaul University | Thomas C.,Edward Hospital | May P.,Advocate Good Samaritan Hospital | And 2 more authors.
PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology | Year: 2014

Conclusion A magnet protocol simplifies perioperative ICD management for procedures using electrocautery more than 6 inches from the ICD. This protocol results in significantly shorter time with ICD therapy off, fewer provider handoffs, no risk of inadvertently discharging patients home with ICD therapies off, and no device reset.Background There are insufficient data to guide perioperative implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) management for patients undergoing surgical procedures using electrocautery.Methods We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial of patients with ICDs undergoing surgery with monopolar electrocautery. Subjects were randomized to an "Off" group (ICD therapy programmed off, then postoperatively programmed on) or a "Magnet" group (ICD therapy suspended with a magnet and no immediate postoperative ICD interrogation). Also, a registry was maintained of ICD patients with procedures within 6 inches of the ICD (all programmed off). The primary endpoint was ICD off time with secondary endpoints being caregiver handoffs and incidence of electromagnetic interference (EMI).Results All patients (n = 80) had pectoral ICDs. Subject demographics were well matched in each group, and duration of electrocautery was similar (80 minutes vs 64 minutes, P = 0.58). The mean "excess" ICD off time (ICD off time - electrocautery time) was significantly higher in the Off group than the Magnet group (115 minutes vs 28 minutes, P < 0.001). Mean number of caregiver handoffs were higher in the Off group (6.6 vs 5.5, P < 0.001). There was no EMI in any lower abdominal or lower extremity procedures. Neither group had arrhythmic events or device reset. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lam C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gallo L.K.,Edward Hospital | Dineen R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ciccone C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports | Year: 2014

OPA3-related 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, or Costeff Optic Atrophy syndrome, is a neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy and later-onset spasticity, and extrapyramidal dysfunction. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is markedly increased. OPA3-related 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is due to mutations in the OPA3 gene located at 19q13.2-13.3. Here we describe two siblings with novel compound heterozygous variants in OPA3: c.1A>G (p.1M>V) in the translation initiation codon in exon 1 and a second variant, c.142+5G>C in intron 1. On cDNA sequencing the c.1A>G appeared homozygous, indicating that the allele without the c.1A>G variant is degraded. This is likely due to an intronic variant; possibly the IVS1+5 splice site variant. The older female sibling initially presented with motor developmental delay and vertical nystagmus during her first year of life and was diagnosed subsequently with optic atrophy. Her brother presented with mildly increased hip muscle tone followed by vertical nystagmus within the first 6 months of life, and was found to have elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid, and optic atrophy by 1.5 years of age. Currently, ages 16 and 7, both children exhibit ataxic gaits and dysarthric speech. Immunofluorescence studies on patient's cells showed fragmented mitochondrial morphology. Thus, though the exact function of OPA3 remains unknown, our experimental results and clinical summary provide evidence for the pathogenicity of the identified OPA3 variants and provide further evidence for a mitochondrial pathology in this disease. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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