« LeEco showcases autonomous EV concept LeSEE at Auto China 2016 | Main | New silicon-sulfur battery built on 3D graphene shows excellent performance » Supported by partners, Clean City Coalitions and corporate sponsors, Alliance AutoGas is embarking on a 5300+ mile, 12-city, cross-country road trip—the Alliance AutoGas Coast-to-Coast Clean Air Ride—with its record-setting propane autogas F-150. The event is being hosted by the Metropolitan Energy Center/Kansas City Regional Clean Cities in conjunction with Veolia/Kansas City Transportation Group and Alliance AutoGas. The converted F-150 will travel across the country from Kansas City to Seattle, WA, and back through the US, stopping along the way, to complete its journey in Jacksonville, FL, on 18 May, followed by a Homecoming event in Asheville, NC, on 23 May. Alliance’s new Engineered Conversion System, installed on a Bi-Fuel 2016 3.5-liter Ford F-150 V6, was converted to propane autogas almost 30 minutes faster than the predicted 2 hour window at the recent Work Truck Show in Indianapolis. Behind the autogas truck, they will be trailering a propane mower. The propane mower is a 2013 Exmark Lazer Z Ultra Cut 60. It is powered by a 25.5 horsepower Kawasaki FX801 V-Twin gasoline engine, converted to propane by Alliance Small Engines. Alliance AutoGas Coast- to- Coast Clean Air Ride Partners and Sponsors include: Propane Education Partner: the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC); Media Partner: Bobit Business Media/Work Truck Magazine; Charity Partner: the American Lung Association of the Southeast, Inc. Three of the city stops—in Fort Collins, CO, Salt Lake City, UT, and Seattle, WA—will be hosted by Alliance AutoGas member Blue Star Gas in conjunction with their local Clean City Coalitions. Alliance AutoGas member Pinnacle Propane will also be hosting 3 additional stops in Albuquerque, NM, Oklahoma City, OK, and Little Rock, AR, in conjunction with local Clean Cities Coalition partners. Local Clean Cities Host Partners include: Metropolitan Energy Center/Kansas City Regional Clean Cities; Northern Colorado Clean Cities; Utah Clean Cities Coalition; Western Washington Clean Cities; Valley of the Sun Clean Cities Coalition; Land of Enchantment Clean Cities; Central Oklahoma Clean Cities/Association of Central Oklahoma Governments; Arkansas Clean Cities; Clean Cities- Georgia; North Florida Clean Fuels Coalition and Land of Sky Clean Cities Coalition.
The Indian government’s annual budget, announced on Feb. 29, increases funding for science and technology, scientific research, and biotechnology within the Ministry of Science & Technology. Budgetary estimates for the Department of Science & Technology (DST), India’s central agency for disbursing research grants in science, are $660 million, up by almost 17% over last year. Health research funding would be hiked by $20 million, or 12.5%, over last year. In contrast, the Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, which promotes domestic technology development and transfer, would receive a paltry rise of 0.7% compared with the previous year. The government plans to pour $269 million into its Department of Biotechnology (DBT), a 12% hike over last year. The increase might seem marginal given the ambitious national strategy launched in December 2015 to turn India into a world hub for biotechnology by 2020. The program is expanding research in vaccines, the human genome, infectious and chronic diseases, crop science, animal agriculture and aquaculture, food and nutrition, environmental management, and clean energy technologies. Despite the increase in biotechnology funding being below expectations, DBT Secretary Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan is confident of acquiring the required funds from other sources. He, however, did not elaborate on what those sources could be. The general enhancement of the annual budget’s allocation, VijayRaghavan says, will help DBT give a major push to programs and activities for national initiatives, including Make in India, Start-up India, and Swachh Bharat (Clean India). Under the increased outlay for Swachh Bharat, development of some new technologies will be given a significant boost, he says. Also in the budget, funding for new and renewable energy received a nearly 17-fold jump. This is to be supported in part by the government’s proposed increase in the nation’s tax on coal, called the Clean Environment Cess. Although the government announced new initiatives for the country’s distressed agricultural sector, their thrust was on infrastructure development and providing insurance to farmers. The outlay for agricultural research and education increased by less than 5%. C. N. R. Rao, a chemist and research professor at Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, says, “The budgets of DST and DBT are good and should boost the morale of scientists.” However, Krishna N. Ganesh, a chemistry professor and director of the Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, Pune, tells C&EN that the scientific community has few reasons to cheer. Compared with the 2015–16 budget, the 2016–17 budget represents a downward trend in the percentage increases of budgetary allocations for science, technology, and biotechnology, he says. “The decreasing trend in the enhanced allocations over the past two years does not augur well for a country that aspires to strengthen its emerging status as a science-driven nation,” Ganesh says.
A diverse team of global experts has been selected to lead ACS Omega, the American Chemical Society’s newest open access journal publishing peer-reviewed articles. Based in the Americas, Europe, India, and China, the editors not only represent key geographic regions of active R&D, they also bring expertise from four distinct scientific areas of interest. The new editors are Cornelia Bohne, a professor of chemistry at the University of Victoria in Canada; Krishna Ganesh, director of the Indian Institute of Science Education & Research in India; Luis Liz-Marzán, Ikerbasque research professor and scientific director at CIC biomaGUNE in Spain; and Deqing Zhang, director of the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in China. Bohne’s research focuses on developing the fundamental understanding of the dynamics of supramolecular systems and on the application of this knowledge to functional supramolecular materials. Ganesh is an expert in modified DNA and peptide-nucleic acids as novel cell-penetrating agents. As the first (founding and serving) director of IISER, Ganesh has built a unique, interdisciplinary infrastructure in which teaching and education are wholly integrated into state-of-the-art research. Liz-Marzán’s research focuses on nanoparticle synthesis and assembly, nanoplasmonics, and the development of nanoparticle-based sensing and diagnostic tools. He most recently served as a senior editor of the ACS journal Langmuir. Zhang’s research focuses on organic functional materials involving synthesis of organic functional molecules, spectroscopic studies, characterizations of self-assembly structures and optoelectronic properties, as well as applications for chemo/biosensing and imaging. “The ACS Omega editors have themselves authored in aggregate more than 850 peer-reviewed research articles, book chapters, and patents,” says Penelope Lewis, director of editorial and new product development in ACS Publications. “Their prolific publishing records and academic and professional achievements set the foundation for a team that will define and lead the editorial vision for the journal, drawing on a geographically diverse editorial board they will soon enlist—to be composed of active researchers with wide-ranging expertise and scientific backgrounds across chemistry, chemical engineering, and allied interdisciplinary scientific fields.” ACS Omega will begin accepting research submissions in April 2016 and will publish its first articles online early this summer.
Crystalline materials, like diamonds or gemstones, are typically hard and brittle. But crystals made of orderly arrangements of organic molecules can be flexible. Although most such crystals have been discovered serendipitously, now researchers have designed organic molecules that form flexible crystals through weak interactions between repeating building blocks (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b05118). This design principle could be applied to engineer materials for organic solar cells and light-emitting diodes, or as additives to ease pharmaceutical manufacturing, the researchers say. Little is known about how the structure of organic crystals determines their mechanical properties. But C. Malla Reddy of the Indian Institute of Science Education & Research Kolkata and his colleagues started with one known principle: Under mechanical stress, weak connections easily break and reform, sometimes allowing a material to bend without breaking. Harnessing the power of weak interactions, they designed three classes of organic molecules to form different flexible crystals. One such class used building blocks of naphthalene diimides with spherical methyl or t-butyl groups on either end. The aromatic rings in the center of each building block stack one on top of the other to form one dimension of the crystal. Meanwhile, these stacks interact side-to-side through weak, short-lived electrostatic attractions between the alkyl groups. These interactions create planes running through the crystal where the layers can slide past each other when the crystal is bent. Reddy compares this sliding motion to sheets of paper slipping past each other in a bent notepad. Using this flexibility, the researchers could shape the microscopic crystals into letters of the alphabet. For the second class of molecules, the researchers used substituted benzoic acid building blocks held together in one direction with relatively strong hydrogen bonds, commonly used for linking building blocks in crystal engineering. In the other dimension, weak halogen-halogen interactions between chlorine or bromine atoms at the ends of these building blocks created the slipping layers that produced flexibility within this crystal. The researchers made the third class of building blocks out of o-vanillin joined to anilines substituted with halogens or alkoxy groups. This class of molecules forms crystals that change color when illuminated or that propel themselves off a surface when heated—properties that could be useful for applications like optical memory or mechanically active materials. In this case, weak interactions between alkoxy and halogen groups created the slip. A lot of chemical insight is required to produce crystals that can be bent into letters, says Gautam R. Desiraju of the Indian Institute of Science. He calls this an “ideal study” of crystal engineering, in that the researchers used their understanding of how the molecules in a crystal affect its structure and physical properties to design and build the crystal. Reddy hopes other researchers apply weak interactions to designing flexible organic semiconducting molecules or substances to aid pharmaceutical production. When making medicines, active ingredients are often combined with excipient materials as part of the formulation and manufacturing process. But if an excipient makes a powder too brittle, it can break when stirred, creating inconsistent product. Flexible crystals could help solve this problem, Reddy says.
Jethara S.I.,Gujarat Technological University |
Jethara S.I.,Education & Research |
Patel A.D.,Gujarat Technological University |
Patel A.D.,Education & Research |
And 3 more authors.
Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation | Year: 2015
The major goals of designing nanosuspension of nanosize materials are increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with the wide range of applications. Nanosuspension is a unique tool for improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspension drug delivery has wide range of application like oral, injectable, transdermal, inhalation, peroral, ocular, pulmonary and topical etc. by improviing the bioavailability, reducing the dose, gastric irritation, decreasing intra subject variability and increasing adhesivness with intestinal membrane. Recently, nanosuspension has been received much interest as a way to resolve solubility and stability problem because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compare to other liposome and colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions are engaged to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate, improve the bioavaibility of drug with poor solubility and dose regimen. Application and preparation method of nanosuspension has been reported by research articles and patented in different countries. Most of the marketed nanosuspensions are in preclinical and clinical based study for its application. More than 100 patents have been published on nanosuspensions by the recent days. This patent reviews covers different methods of pharmaceutical preparation and applications in drug delivery as well as the recent marketed published or granted patent surveys. This patent review is useful in enhance the knowledge of controlled drug delivery and applications. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.